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and against quakers and sabbatarians. For a time he shared the quaker objection to oath-taking. For refusing in January 1661 the oath of allegiance he was thrown into prison in London, whence he wrote a letter to two of his friends reproaching them for taking the oath. After five days' incarceration he took the oath himself, and published a book to prove some oaths lawful, though not all. Later he held a disputation with a ‘Romish priest’ at the bidding and in presence of Charles II. Ives was habited as an anglican clergyman, but his opponent, finding at length that he had to deal with ‘an anabaptist preacher,’ refused to continue the argument. Among his own people he was highly esteemed. His latest known publication is an appendix to a report of discussions held on 9 and 16 Oct. 1674, and he is supposed to have died in the following year.

He published: 1. ‘Infants-baptism Disproved,’ &c., 1655, 4to (in answer to Alexander Kellie). 2. ‘The Quakers Quaking,’ &c., 1656? (answered by James Nayler [q. v.] in ‘Weaknes above Wickednes,’ &c., 1656, 4to). 3. ‘Innocency above Impudency,’ &c., 1656, 4to (reply to Nayler). 4. ‘Confidence Questioned,’ &c., 1658, 4to (against Thomas Willes). 5. ‘Confidence Encountred; or, a Vindication of the Lawfulness of Preaching without Ordination,’ &c., 1658, 4to (answer to Willes). 6. ‘Saturday no Sabbath,’ &c., 1659, 12mo (account of his discussions with Peter Chamberlen, M.D. [q. v.], Thomas Tillam, and Coppinger). 7. ‘Eighteen Questions,’ &c., 1659, 4to (on government). 8. ‘The Great Case of Conscience opened … about … Swearing,’ &c., 1660, 4to. 9. ‘A Contention for Truth,’ &c., 1672, 4to (two discussions with Thomas Danson [q. v.]). 10. ‘A Sober Request,’ &c., 1674 (broadside; answered by William Penn). 11. ‘William Penn's Confutation of a Quaker,’ &c., 1674? (answered in William Shewen's ‘William Penn and the Quaker in Unity,’ &c., 1674, 4to). 12. ‘Some Reflections,’ &c., appended to Thomas Plant's ‘A Contest for Christianity,’ &c., 1674, 8vo. The British Museum Catalogue suggests that Ives wrote ‘Strength-weakness; or, the Burning Bush not consumed … by J. J.,’ &c., 1655, 4to.

[Sewel's Hist. of the Quakers, 1725, pp. 504 sq.; Crosby's Hist. of the Baptists, 1739 ii. 308, 1740 iv. 247 sq.; Wilson's Diss. Churches of London, 1808, ii. 302, 444 sq.; Ivimey's Hist. of Engl. Baptists, 1814, ii. 603 sq.; Wood's Hist. of Gen. Baptists, 1847, p. 140; Records of Fenstanton (Hanserd Knollys Society), 1854, xxvi. 77; Smith's Bibliotheca Anti-Quakeriana, 1873, pp. 243 sq., 362.]

A. G.

IVES, JOHN (1751–1776), Suffolk herald extraordinary, born at Great Yarmouth in 1751, was the only son of John Ives, an opulent merchant of that town, by Mary, daughter of John Hannot. He was educated in the free school of Norwich, and was subsequently entered at Caius College, Cambridge, where he did not long reside. Returning to Yarmouth, he became acquainted with ‘honest Tom Martin’ of Palgrave, from whom he derived a taste for antiquarian studies. He was elected F.S.A. in 1771, and F.R.S. in 1772. His first attempt at antiquarian publication was by the issuing of proposals, anonymously, in 1771, for printing ‘The History and Antiquities of the Hundred of Lothingland in the County of Suffolk,’ for which several arms and monuments were engraved from his own drawings. The work never appeared, but a manuscript copy of it is preserved in the British Museum (Addit. MS. 19098). His next performance was ‘A True Copy of the Register of Baptisms and Burials in … Yarmouth, for seven years past,’ printed at his private press 5 Sept. 1772. He contributed the preface to Henry Swinden's ‘History and Antiquities of Great Yarmouth,’ 1772. Swinden, who was a schoolmaster, was an intimate friend of Ives, who not only rendered him pecuniary assistance when living, but superintended the publication of the history for the benefit of the author's widow.

In 1772 he had nine wooden plates cut of old Norfolk seals, entitled ‘Sigilla antiqua Norfolciensia;’ and a copper-plate portrait of Thomas Martin, afterwards prefixed to that antiquary's ‘History of Thetford,’ was engraved at his expense. By favour of the Earl of Suffolk, he was in October 1774 appointed an honorary member of the College of Arms, and created Suffolk herald extraordinary, which title was expressly revived for him (Noble, Hist. of the College of Arms, p. 445).

In imitation of Horace Walpole (to whom the first number was inscribed), Ives began in 1773 to publish ‘Select Papers chiefly relating to English Antiquities,’ from his own collection, of which the second number was printed in 1774 and a third in 1775. Among these are ‘Remarks upon our English Coins, from the Norman Invasion down to the end of the Reign of Queen Elizabeth,’ by Archbishop Sharp; Sir William Dugdale's ‘Directions for the Search of Records, and making use of them, in order to an Historical Discourse of the Antiquities of Staffordshire;’ with ‘Annals of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge,’ and the ‘Coronation of Henry VII and of Queen Elizabeth.’ In 1774 he published ‘Remarks upon the