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Ivimey was a rapid writer, and from 1808, when he began to publish, a very prolific one. His historical account of English baptists was projected in 1809, primarily with a biographical aim. The work swelled to four volumes 8vo (1811–30), and contains a great deal of information, to be used with caution. George Gould [q. v.] has severely criticised its ‘blunders and contradictions,’ asserting that Ivimey is apt to get into ‘a maze of mistakes’ except when he follows Crosby.

Other of his publications are: 1. ‘The History of Hannah,’ &c., 1808, 12mo. 2. ‘A Brief Sketch of the History of Dissenters,’ &c., 1810, 12mo. 3. ‘A Plea for the Protestant Canon of Scripture,’ &c., 1825, 8vo. 4. ‘The Life of Mr. John Bunyan,’ &c., 1825, 12mo. 5. ‘Communion at the Lord's Table,’ &c., 1826, 8vo (against open communion, in reply to Robert Hall). 6. ‘Pilgrims of the Nineteenth Century,’ &c., 1827, 12mo (intended as a continuation of Bunyan's ‘Pilgrim's Progress’). 7. ‘Letters on the Serampore Controversy,’ &c., 1831, 8vo. 8. ‘The Triumph of the Bible in Ireland,’ &c., 1832, 8vo. 9. ‘The utter Extinction of Slavery,’ &c., 1832, 8vo. 10. ‘John Milton; his Life and Times,’ &c., 1833, 8vo; republished in America. Also many single sermons and tracts, including funeral sermons for William Button and Daniel Humphrey (both 1821); memoirs of Caleb Vernon (1811), William Fox of the Sunday School Society (1831), and William Kiffin (1833); and anti-papal pamphlets (1819, 1828, 1829). He contributed to the ‘Baptist Magazine’ from 1809, using generally the signature ‘Iota;’ from 1812 he was one of the editors. He edited, among other works, the 4th edition, 1827, 12mo, of ‘Persecution for Religion,’ by Thomas Helwys [q. v.] , originally published 1615; Bunyan's ‘Pilgrim's Progress … with … Notes,’ &c., 1821, 12mo, and the 1692 ‘Life of … John Bunyan,’ &c., 1832, 12mo.

[Memoir, by George Pritchard, 1835; Monthly Repository, 1829, pp. 426 sq.; Gould's Open Communion, 1860, pp. xcvii sq.]

A. G.

IVO of Grantmesnil (fl. 1101), crusader. [See under Hugh, d. 1094, called of Grantmesnil.]

IVOR HAEL, or the Generous (d. 1361), patron of Welsh literature, and particularly of his nephew, the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym [q. v.], was lord of Maesaleg (Bassaleg), Y Wenallt, and Gwernycleppa in Monmouthshire, being the second son of Llewelyn ab Ivor of Tredegar, by Angharad, daughter of Sir Morgan ab Meredith. He married Nest, daughter of Rhys ab Grono ab Llywarch (his elder brother, Morgan, marrying her sister), and founded the cadet branch of Gwernycleppa. He died in 1361, and it is often erroneously stated that he left no issue behind him (Barddoniaeth, ed. Jones, p. vi), but he had a long line of descendants, in whose possession Gwernycleppa remained until it was sold, 15 Oct. 1733, to a descendant of Ivor's elder brother, from whom Lord Tredegar claims descent.

Ivor is the hero of much absurd fiction. Dafydd ap Gwilym is said to have fallen in love with his daughter, who was sent to a nunnery in Anglesey in order to prevent an alliance, while Dafydd was still retained in Ivor's household as family bard and land steward. This story is, however, probably based upon a mistaken interpretation of some of Dafydd's poems. Under Ivor's patronage was held, about 1328, at Gwernycleppa the first of the ‘three Eisteddfods of the Renascence’ of Welsh poetry (Tair Eisteddfod Dadeni).

At least nine poems were addressed by Dafydd ap Gwilym to Ivor and members of his family, and the same poet wrote elegies on the death of Ivor and Nest, his wife.

[Clark's Genealogies of Glamorgan, pp. 310, 329; Barddoniaeth Dafydd ap Gwilym, ed. Jones, Introduction; Llenddiaeth y Cymry, by Gweirydd ab Rhys.]

D. Ll. T.

IVORY, Saint (d. 500?). [See Ibgar or Iberius.]

IVORY, Sir JAMES, (1765–1842), mathematician, born in Dundee in 1765, was the eldest son of James Ivory, a watchmaker there. At the age of fourteen he matriculated at St. Andrews University, and after six years' study with a view to becoming a minister of the Scottish Church, went to Edinburgh to complete his theological course, accompanied by John (afterwards Sir John) Leslie (1766–1832) [q. v.], a fellow-student at Aberdeen, who like himself had already evinced a strong mathematical bias. Ivory returned to Dundee in 1786, and for three years taught in the principal school, introducing the study of algebra, and raising the standard of general instruction. He afterwards joined in starting a flax-spinning mill at Douglastown, on the Carbet, near Forfar, and acted as managing partner. Ivory devoted all his leisure to mathematical work, especially to analysis as it was then taught on the continent, and Henry Brougham, at the time a young advocate, cultivated his acquaintance, and visited him at Brigton, near the flax-factory, when on his way to the Aberdeen circuit. Four mathematical papers of his, the first dated 7 Nov. 1796, were read to the Royal Society of Edin-