Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 31.djvu/353

This page has been proofread, but needs to be validated.

cording to the unanimous authority of contemporary writers, Kyan distinguished himself by his efforts to prevent the massacre of loyalist prisoners by the rebels on Wexford bridge. After the fall of Wexford he joined a band of insurgents who tried to penetrate the county Carlow, and took a part in the last scenes of the war in the Wicklow mountains. On the suppression of the rebellion Kyan returned home in disguise to see his relatives, but was discovered and arrested. He was executed in July 1798, after a short trial before a court-martial.

[Webb's Compendium of Irish Biography; George Taylor's History of the Wexford Rebellion of 1798; Memoirs of Miles Byrne. See also Lecky's England during the Eighteenth Century, vol. viii.]

G. P. M-y.

KYAN, JOHN HOWARD (1774–1850), inventor of the ‘kyanising’ process for preserving wood, son of John Howard Kyan of Mount Howard and Ballymurtagh, co. Wicklow, was born in Dublin, Nov. 27, 1774. His father was the owner of valuable copper mines in Wicklow (now worked by the Wicklow Copper Mines Company), and for some time at the end of the last century worked them himself. The son was educated to take part in the management of the mines, but soon after he entered the concern its fortunes declined, and in 1804 his father died almost penniless. For a time Kyan was employed at some vinegar works at Newcastle-on-Tyne, but subsequently removed to London, to Greaves's vinegar brewery in Old Street Road. The decay of the timber supports in his father's copper mines had already directed his attention to the question of preserving wood, and as early as 1812 he began experiments with a view to discovering a method of preventing the decay. Eventually he found that bichloride of mercury, or corrosive sublimate, as it is commonly called, gave the best results, and, without revealing the nature of the process, he submitted a block of oak impregnated with that substance to the admiralty in 1828. It was placed in the ‘fungus pit’ at Woolwich, where it remained for three years exposed to all the conditions favourable to decay. When taken out in 1831, it was found to be perfectly sound, and after further trials it still remained unaffected. Kyan patented his discovery in 1832 (Nos. 6253 and 6309), extending the application of the invention to the preservation of paper, canvas, cloth, cordage, &c. A further patent was granted in 1836 (No. 7001). The preservative action of a solution of bichloride of mercury was previously well known, and Kyan's process merely consisted in the submersion of timber or other materials in a tank containing a solution of corrosive sublimate in water. It was maintained by the inventor that permanent chemical combination took place between the mercurial salt and the woody fibre, but this was contested. The process attracted great attention. Faraday chose it as the subject of his inaugural lecture at the Royal Institution on 22 Feb. 1833, on his appointment as Fullerian professor of chemistry. Dr. Birkbeck gave a lecture upon it at the Society of Arts on 9 Dec. 1834, and in 1835 the admiralty published the report of a committee appointed by the board to inquire into the value of the new method. In 1836 Kyan sold his rights to the Anti-Dry Rot Company, an act of parliament being passed which authorised the raising of a capital of 250,000l. Tanks were constructed at Grosvenor Basin, Pimlico, at the Grand Surrey Canal Dock, Rotherhithe, and at the City Road Basin. Great things were predicted of ‘kyanising,’ as the process then began to be called. A witty writer in ‘Bentley's Miscellany’ for January 1837 told how the muses had adopted Kyan's improvement to preserve their favourite trees. At a dinner given to celebrate the success which attended the experiment, a song, which became popular, was first sung. The opening verse runs:

Have you heard, have you heard
Anti-dry Rot's the word?
Wood will never wear out, thanks to Kyan, to Kyan!
He dips in a tank any rafter or plank,
And makes it immortal as Dian, as Dian!

Among the early applications of the process was the kyanising of the palings round the Inner Circle, Regent's Park, which was carried out in 1835 as an advertisement, small brass plates being attached to the palings at intervals stating that the wood had been submitted to the new process. The plates soon disappeared, but the original palings still remain in good condition. The timber used in building the Oxford and Cambridge Club, British Museum, Royal College of Surgeons, Westminster Bridewell, the new roof of the Temple Church, and the Ramsgate harbour works was also prepared by Kyan's process. When wooden railway sleepers became general (in place of the stone blocks used on the early lines), a very profitable business for Kyan's company was anticipated, and for a time these hopes were realised. But it became evident that iron fastenings could not be used in wood treated with corrosive sublimate, on account of the corrosive action, and it was said that the wood became brittle. The salt was somewhat expensive, and Sir William Burnett's method of preserving timber by chloride of zinc, and after-