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union between the scattered branches of the anglican church.’ In parliament he was a supporter of the liberal party, but he voted and spoke against the Oxford University Reform Bill of 1854, the Divorce Bill in 1857, Lord Ebury's motion for a revision of the prayer-book, the motion for a modification of the Act of Uniformity, and for making an alteration in the burial service. As a man of learning, of cultivated intellect, of courteous manners, and an even temper, he won public confidence. The archbishop died of bronchitis at Addington Park, near Croydon, on 27 Oct. 1868, and was buried in Addington parish churchyard on 3 Nov. He married, on 15 Dec. 1831, Caroline Sophia, eldest child of Sir Henry Brooke Parnell, first baron Congleton; she died at Auckland Castle, Durham, 9 March 1858, having had issue: Henry, born 1834, called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn 30 April 1860, K.C.B., once first charity commissioner; George, born 9 March 1835, of the royal engineers, served in the Turkish contingent in the Crimea and also in the Chinese war, and was dangerously wounded, retired as lieutenant-colonel 5 Jan. 1872; Arthur, born 17 Feb. 1841, staff paymaster in the army with the honorary rank of major 24 Dec. 1884; Mary Henrietta, married 9 Dec. 1858 George Wingfield Bourke (fourth son of Robert, fifth earl of Mayo), rector of Coulsdon, near Croydon; Frances Elizabeth; Caroline Georgiana, d 30 Oct. 1867, who married, 6 Nov. 1862, Major Levett of the 10th hussars; and Rosamond Hester Harriet.

Longley was the author of: 1. ‘A Letter to the Parishioners of St. Saviour's, Leeds,’ 1851. 2. ‘Four Sermons on the Consecration of St. John the Evangelist's Church, Whitwell,’ York, 1861. 3. ‘Address delivered in Whippingham Church at the Confirmation of Prince Arthur,’ 1866. 4. ‘An Address delivered at the Opening of the Conference of Bishops,’ 1867. Besides an English version of Koch's ‘Tableau des Révolutions de l'Europe’ (1831, 4to), numerous addresses, charges, pastoral letters, and single sermons.

[Proby's Annals of the Low Church Party, i. 483, ii. 18, 154, 498; F. Arnold's Our Bishops and Deans, 1875, i. 161–8; Welch's Westminster Scholars; Church of England Photograph Portrait Gallery, 1859, portrait, 3; Illustr. London News, 1856 xxix. 539, 1862 xli. 381, portrait, 1868 liii. 458; Chris. Wordsworth, by Overton and Wordsworth; Register and Magazine of Biography, January 1869, pp. 40–2; Guardian, 28 Oct., 4 Nov. 1868; Times, 29, 30 Oct. 3, 4 Nov. 1868; Life of S. Wilberforce, Bishop of Oxford, 1880–2, i, 434, ii. 179, iii. 33, 464.]

G. C. B.

LONGLEY, THOMAS (d. 1437), bishop of Durham. [See Langley.]

LONGMAN, THOMAS (1699–1756), founder of the publishing house of Longman, was born in 1699 at Bristol, where his great-grandfather and grandfather had thriven in the soap trade. At the age of nine he lost his father, Ezekiel, who is described as 'gentleman,' and from whom and from his own mother he appears to have inherited a considerable amount of property. When he was seventeen his guardians apprenticed him for seven years to John Osborn, a prosperous bookseller in Lombard Street, London, afterwards master of the Stationers' Company, whose daughter he married. In 1724, at the close of his apprenticeship, he bought for 2,282l. the business of John Taylor, the first publisher of ' Robinson Crusoe', a bookseller in Paternoster Row, at the sign of the Ship and Black Swan, on the site of which, and of other houses then adjoining it, are the premises now occupied by the firm of Longmans. In a few months John Osborn entered into partnership with his former apprentice, and they traded as 'J. Osborn & T. Longman' at the sign of the Ship. They were among the original shareholders, to a small extent, of the subsequently very successful and profitable ' Cyclopaedia of the Arts and Sciences' of Ephraim Chambers [q. v.] With the death of his father-in-law, about 1734, Thomas Longman became sole owner of the business, which he steadily increased by his purchase of shares in sound literary properties. In 1740 he published the third volume of David Hume's first work, the ' Treatise of Human Nature,' having been introduced to Hume by Francis Hutcheson (Burton, Life of Hume, i. 117-20). In 1744 he was the owner of nearly a sixth of the shares of Chambers's ' Cyclopaedia,' the largest number held by any of its proprietors. He was one of the six booksellers who entered into an agreement with Dr. Johnson for the production of the English dictionary, the 'Plan' of which was issued in 1747. Boswell's statement that 'the two Messieurs Longman 'were parties to this agreement is probably erroneous. He died, apparently childless,on 18 June 1755. (For illustrations of his kindliness of disposition see Chambers, Ephraim.)

Longman, Thomas (1730-1797), born in 1730, nephew of the preceding, was taken, at twenty-three, into partnership by his uncle, at whose death he succeeded to the business. He greatly extended it in the provinces, and became a very large exporter of books to the American colonies. He promoted the issue