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take the pall from the altar, Losinga and his brother bishop, Osmund of Salisbury, met him on the way, declared their penitence, and received absolution from him in a small wayside church (Eadmer, Hist. Nov. ed. Paris, 1721, ii. 45; Will. Malm. ib. p. 95). Losinga died on 26 June 1095, and was buried in his cathedral.

Florence calls Losinga ‘vir magnæ religionis,’ and the biographer of Wulfstan praises him for uniting confidence in the affairs of the world with purity of life (p. 268). A laudatory epitaph in Latin elegiacs, written by Godfrey, prior of Winchester, is given by Hardy (Descriptive Catalogue, ii. 76). The following works are ascribed to him by Bale: ‘Deflorationes Marianæ;’ ‘Sermones per annum;’ ‘De Sacramentis Ecclesiæ;’ ‘De Stellarum Motibus;’ ‘De Lunari Computo;’ ‘Mathematicæ Tabulæ, atque alia.’

[The authorities cited; Hoveden, i. 133, 147, 150; Godwin, De Præsul. ii. 60; Wright's Biogr. Brit. Literaria, ii. 18, 20; Hook's Life of Wulfstan, Archæological Journal, xx. 9; Freeman's Norman Conquest, iv. 379, 422, and William Rufus, i. 312, 479, 480, 533, 535; Bale's Script.]

E. V.

LOTHIAN, Earls and Marquises of. [See Kerr, Mark, d. 1600, first Earl; Kerr, William, 1605?–1675, third Earl; Kerr, Robert, 1636–1703, fourth Earl and first Marquis; Kerr, William, 1663?–1722, second Marquis; Kerr, William Henry, d. 1775, fourth Marquis.]

LOTHIAN, WILLIAM (1740–1783), divine and historian, born on 5 Nov. 1740, was son of George Lothian, surgeon, of Edinburgh. After attending Edinburgh High School he was licensed to preach in October 1762, and was ordained minister of the Canongate, Edinburgh, in August 1764. On 15 Oct. 1779 he received the degree of D.D. from Edinburgh University. He died on 17 Dec. 1783. By his marriage, on 1 Oct. 1766, to Elizabeth Lothian (d. 1815), he had four sons and a daughter.

Lothian wrote ‘The History of the United Provinces of the Netherlands,’ 4to, London, 1780; and two sermons for ‘The Scotch Preacher,’ 12mo, Edinburgh, 1776, vol. ii.

[Hew Scott's Fasti Eccl. Scot. I. i. 86; Anderson's Scot. Nation, ii. 693.]

G. G.

LOTHROPP, LATHROP, or LOTHROP, JOHN (d. 1653), independent divine, first appears as perpetual curate of Egerton, Kent. He resigned his cure, renounced his orders, and in 1622 or 1624 succeeded Henry Jacob [q. v.] as pastor of the independent church formed in 1616 in Southwark, London. On 29 April 1632 Tomlinson, the pursuivant of Laud, bishop of London, made a raid on the congregation, then assembled in the house of Humphrey Barnet, a brewer's clerk, in Blackfriars. Lothropp and forty-one members of his flock were seized, and imprisoned in the Clink and other gaols for two years, when all except Lothropp were released on bail. During his incarceration a split took place (1633) in his church; those who definitely denied the establishment to be a true church, and rejected infant baptism, went off under the leadership of John Spilsbury. Lothropp petitioned in 1634 for liberty to go into foreign exile; this was granted on 24 April to ‘John Lathropp’ on his giving a bond. He seems, however, to have delayed his departure, and to have reorganised the meetings of his church, which was joined at this crisis by William Kiffin [q. v.]. On 12 June 1634 order was given by the high commission court that ‘John Lothrop, of Lambeth Marsh’ (so read by Waddington, but in the Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, it is read ‘Lathrop’), be attached ‘if he appear not on the next court day.’ As he did not appear, order was given on 19 June for his attachment. This was repeated on 9 Oct., when the name of Samuel Eaton [q. v.] was included in the order, and on 19 Feb. 1635 Lothropp and Eaton were ordered to be committed for contempt. Lothropp, however, was by this time in New England; he had sailed in the Griffin, and reached Boston on 18 Sept. 1634, accompanied by thirty-two members of his church and many others. He was succeeded at Southwark by Henry Jessey [q. v.] in 1637; till then it is probable that Eaton ministered to the flock. Neal, who makes John Canne [q. v.] the immediate successor of Lothropp, has introduced confusion into the whole narrative by mistaking Lothropp's church for another, which met in Deadman's Place, Southwark.

Having strict notions of church fellowship, Lothropp did not seek to communicate with the Boston puritans, with whom he was not in membership, though he applied for permission to be present at the ordinance. His first settlement was at Scituate, Massachusetts, where he ministered for about five years. He removed (11 Oct. 1639) with part of his church to Barnstaple, Massachusetts, and ministered there till his death. He died on 8 Nov. 1653. He was twice married. By his first wife, who died during his imprisonment (1632–4) in the Clink, he had a numerous family; he brought with him from England four sons, Thomas (captain of militia,