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which was at first assailed with much virulence, but which has long since obtained a recognised position as a legitimate method of cure. His knowledge of physiology is attested by his work entitled ' The Outlines of Physiology, Human and Comparative,' 1867, 3 vols. 12mo, and by his four years' tenure of the Fullerian chair of physiology at the Royal Institution. His power of original observation is shown by his paper in the 'Philosophical Transactions' for 1850, 'On the Development of the Great Veins,' which has rendered his name familiar to every student of medicine, and by a second paper, 'On the Brain of a Bush woman,' published in 1864. He fully grasped the requirements of medical students ; the details of their education at the present time were to a large extent formulated by him, and he took a deep interest in the scheme of establishing a teaching university in London.

Marshall was one of the first to show that cholera might be spread by means of drinking water, and his report upon the outbreak of cholera in Broad Street, St. James's, London, in 1854, is still important and interesting. He invented the system of circular wards for hospitals, and published a pamphlet on the subject in 1879.

His chief works, apart from those already noticed, were : 1. 'A Description of the Human Body, its Structure and Functions,' London, 1860, 4to, with folio plates; 4th edit. 1883. 2. 'Anatomy for Artists,' London, 1878, royal 8vo ; 2nd edit. 1883 ; 3rd edit. 1890. 3. 'A Rule of Proportion for the Human Figure,' 1878, fol. 4. 'A Series of Life-size Anatomical Diagrams,' seven sheets. 5. 'Physiological Diagrams,' life size, eleven sheets. He left two completed papers : 'On the Relations between the Weight of the Brain and its Parts, and the Stature and Mass of the Body,' and on 'The Brain of the late George Grote,' both of which were published in 1892, in the 'Journal of Anatomy and Physiology.'

A bust by Thomas Thornycroft, dated 1852, is in the possession of Mrs. Marshall. Another by Mr. Thomas Brock, R.A., dated 1887, will shortly be placed in University College; and a replica has been purchased by the Royal College of Surgeons of England. A portrait, in the oil-painting of the president and council of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, executed in 1885 by Mr. H. Jamyn Brooks, hangs in the hall of the college in Lincoln's Inn Fields.

[Information kindly supplied by Mrs. Mar shall, Mr. Cadge, and Mr. J. Erie Erichsen, F.R.S. ; Obituary Notices in Proceedings of Royal Society; Transactions of Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society of London, Ixxiv. 16; Lancet, 1891, i. 117; British Medical Journal, 1891, i. 91.]

D’A. P.

MARSHALL, NATHANIEL, D.D. (d. 1730), divine, a native of Middlesex, was entered a pensioner of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, 8 July 1696. He was admitted to the degree of LL.B. in 1702, and afterwards took holy orders. In 1712 he preached before the Sons of the Clergy. He was lecturer at Aldermanbury Church, and curate of Kentish Town in January 1714-15, when, at the recommendation of the Prince of Wales, who admired his preaching, he was appointed one of the king's chaplains. On 26 March. 1716 he became rector of the united parishes of St. Vedast, Foster Lane, and St. Michaelle-Querne, in the city of London (Malcolm, Londinium Redivivum, iv. 637); and in 1717 he was created D.D. at Cambridge by royal mandate. He was appointed canon of Windsor by patent dated 1 May 1722 (Le Neve, Fasti, ed. Hardy, iii. 407). He was also lecturer of the united parishes of St. Laurence Jewry and St. Martin, Ironmonger Lane. He died on 5 Feb. 1729-30, and was buried at St. Pancras.

By his wife Margaret he had eight children, the eldest of whom was in 1730 rector of St. John the Evangelist.

His publications are: 1. 'The Penitential Discipline of the Primitive Church, for the first 400 Years after Christ: together with its Declension from the Fifth Century, downwards to its Present State, impartially represented, by a Presbyter of the Church of England,' London, 1714, 8vo; reprinted in the 'Library of Anglo-Catholic Theology,' Oxford, 1844, 8vo. 2. 'A Defence of our Constitution in Church and State: or an Answer to the late Charge of the Non-Jurors, accusing us of Heresy and Schism, Perjury and Treason/ London, 1717, 8vo. 'Some Remarks' on this work, by Dr. A. A. Sykes, appeared in 1717; a 'Short Answer' is appended to Matthew Barbery's 'Admonition to Dr. Kennet,' 1717; and Hilkiah Bedford published, anonymously, 'A Vindication of the late Archbishop Sancroft and of ... the rest of the Depriv'd Bishops from the Reflections of Mr. Marshal in his Defence, &c. ,' London, 1717, 8vo. 3. 'The Genuine Works of St. Cyprian, with his Life, written by his own Deacon Pontius: all done into English from the Oxford edition, and illustrated with notes. To which is added, a Dissertation upon the case of heretical and schismatical Baptisms at the close of the Council of Carthage in 256; whose Acts are herewith published,' 2 parts, London, 1717, fol. In the judgment of Dr. Adam Clarke, Marshall in-