Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 36.djvu/286

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Martin


to "The Westminster Doctrine of the Inspiration of Scripture,"' 8vo, London, 1877.

[Information obtained from Dr. Martin's son, the Rev. Alexander Martin, M.A., one of the ministers of Morningside Free Church, Edinburgh.]

G. S-h.

MARTIN, JAMES (fl. 1577), philosophical writer, a native of Dunkeld, Perthshire, is said to have been educated at Oxford. A James Martin, whose college is not mentioned, commenced M.A. at Oxford on 31 March 1522 (Oxf. Univ. Reg., Oxf. Hist. Soc., i. 124). He was professor of philosophy at Paris. In 1556 he was proctor of the Germans in the university of Paris (Du Boulay, Hist. Univ. Paris, vi. 490), and in May 1557 was chosen by the same nation to negotiate with the king concerning a tax which he desired to impose on the university, much to its disgust (ib. pp. 490, 518). He subsequently is said to have become professor at Turin. Burton (The Scot Abroad, p. 296) says he was professor at Rome, but this is probably a slip. He was dead by 1584.

Martin wrote a treatise in refutation of some of Aristotle's dogmas entitled 'De prima simplicium & concretorum corporum Generatione … disputatio,' 4to, Turin, 1577. Another edition, with a preface by William Temple, M.A., of King's College, Cambridge, was published at Cambridge in 1584, 8vo, and again at Frankfort in 1589. A reply by Andreas Libavius appeared at Frankfort in 1591.

Other treatises by Martin are vaguely mentioned by Tanner, viz.:

  1. 'In Artem Memoriae,' Paris.
  2. 'De Intelligentiis Motricibus,' Turin.
  3. 'In Libros Aristotelis de Ortu et Interitu,' Paris, 1555,

but none of them appear to be now extant.

[Tanner's Bibl. Brit.-Hib. 1718, p. 515.]

G. G.

MARTIN, Sir JAMES (1815–1886), chief justice of New South Wales, son of John Martin of Fermoy, Ireland, by Mary, daughter of David Hennessey of Ballynona, was born at Middleton, co. Cork, 6 Nov. 1815, or, according to various other accounts, on 14 May 1820. He emigrated with his parents to New South Wales in 1821, was educated at Sydney College, and admitted a solicitor of the supreme court on 10 May 1845. In 1848 he began to write for the 'Atlas' newspaper, and in 1851 he became a contributor to the 'Empire.' As an elected member for Cork and Westmoreland he first sat in the Legislative Council in 1848. He advocated the establishment of a royal mint in Sydney as early as 1851, but the "measure was not carried till four years later. In the first parliament under responsible government in 1856, he was again elected for Cork and Westmoreland. Mr. (afterwards Sir) Charles Cowper [q. v.], on coming into power, made Martin attorney-general on 26 Aug. 1856. He was shortly after called to the bar, and speedily obtained a position in his profession. On the return of Cowper as premier, 7 Sept. 1857, Martin was again associated with him as attorney-general, and was made a queen's counsel. He passed the Assessment Act, which increased the squatters' contributions to the revenue. In the third legislative assembly elected by manhood suffrage, 30 Aug. 1859, he sat for East Sydney, and afterwards represented successively Orange, the Lachlan, again East Sydney, and lastly East Macquarie. He became premier for the first time on 16 Oct. 1863, when he proposed a protective tariff, which was adopted in the assembly, but the Legislative Council threw out his measure. The Cowper ministry which followed was a failure, and Martin became premier for the second time on 22 Jan. 1866. He remained in office two years, and brought in the Public Schools Act and the Municipalities Act. During this period Prince Alfred, now the Duke of Edinburgh, visited Australia, and in commemoration of this event Martin was created a knight by patent on 4 May 1869.

He was again prime minister from 15 Dec. 1870 till 13 May 1872. On 19 Nov. 1873 he retired from parliament, and was appointed chief justice of the supreme court of New South Wales, a position which he held till his death at Clarens, near Sydney, on 4 Nov. 1886. He married in 1853 Isabella, eldest daughter of William Long of Sydney, merchant.

Martin's only published work was 'The Australian Sketch-book,' Sydney, 1838.

[Barton's Poets and Prose Writers of New South Wales, 1866, pp. 64-82; Mennell's Dict. of Australian Biography, 1892, pp. 314-15; Law Times, 4 Dec. 1886, p. 88; Times, 8 Nov. 1886, pp. 6-7; Sydney Morning Herald, 5 and 16 Nov. 1886.]

G. C. B.

MARTIN, Sir JAMES RANALD (1793–1874), surgeon, son of the Rev. Donald Martin, was born in 1793 at Kilmuir, Isle of Skye, and received his school education at the Royal Academy of Inverness. In 1813 he became a student of St. George's Hospital, and in 1817, having become a member of the College of Surgeons in London, he obtained an appointment as surgeon on the Bengal medical establishment of the East India Company. He first spent three years in