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Poitou in a battle at Mantes, burnt St. Clair in the Vexin, and destroyed a fine plantation that the French king had made there. William was with the king during his last days, accompanied him in his flight from Le Mans in June 1 189, and at his request joined William FitzRalph in swearing that if ill came to Henry they would give up the Norman castles to none save his son John (Vita Galfridi, vol. i. c. 4). At the coronation of Richard I the earl carried the crown in his hands, walking immediately before Richard. A few days later, at the council at Pipewell, Northamptonshire, the king appointed him chief justiciar jointly with Bishop Hugh of Durham. At a council at London the earl took an oath on the king's behalf, before the French ambassador, that Richard would meet the French king the following spring. He then went into Normandy on the king's business, and died without issue at Rouen on 14 Nov. 1189 (Diceto, ii. 73). He was buried in the abbey of Mortemer, near Aumale, his heart, according to one account, being sent to Walden (Monast. iv. 140, but comp. p. 145).

Mandeville was a gallant and warlike man, 'as loyal as his father was faithless' (Norgate). Besides making a grant to Walden (ib. iv. 149), he founded a house for Augustinian canons called Stoneley, at Kimbolton in Huntingdonshire (ib. vi. 477), gave the manor of Chippenham, Cambridgeshire, to the Knights Hospitallers (ib. p. 801; Hospitallers in England, pp. 78, 230), and lands to Reading Abbey (Monasticon, iv. 35), and to the nuns of Clerkenwell (ib. p. 83), and tithes to the priory of Colne, Essex (ib. p. 102). His widow survived him, and married for her second husband William de Fortibus (d. 1195), bringing him the earldom of Aumale or Albemarle, held by his son William (d. 1242). After the death in 1213 of the Countess Havice's third husband, Baldwin de Bethune, who held the earldom for life (jure uxoris) (Doyle; Stubbs ap. Hoveden, iii. 306 n., comp. Benedict, ii. 92 n.), the county of Aumale was given by Philip of France to Reginald, count of Boulogne (Gulielmus Armoricus ap. Recueil, xvii. 100).

[Benedict's Gesta Hen. II et Ric. I, vols. i. ii. (Rolls Ser.); Roger de Hoveden, vols. ii. iii. (Rolls Ser.); R. de Diceto, vols. i. ii. (Rolls Ser.); R. de Coggeshall, pp. 23, 26 (Rolls Ser.); Gervase Cant. i. 262, 347; Giraldus Cambr. Vita Galfridi, ap Opp. iv. 369 (Rolls Ser.); Gulielmus Armoricus ap. Recueil des Hist. xvii. 100; Dugdale's Monasticon, esp. iv. 134 sqq., sub tit. 'Walden Abbey' a history of the Mandeville family; Dugdale's Baronage, i. 204; Doyle's Official Baronage, i. 24, 682; Round's Geoffrey de Mandeville, pp.81, 242, 390; Norgate's Angevin Kings, ii. 144, 260, 279, 282.]

W. H.

MANDUIT, JOHN (fl. 1310), astronomer. [See Mauduith.]

MANFIELD, Sir JAMES. [See Mansfield.]

MANGAN, JAMES (1803–1849), Irish poet, commonly called James Clarence Mangan, born at No. 3 Fishamble Street, Dublin, on 1 May 1803, was son of a grocer there. The father, James Mangan, a native of Shanagolden, co. Limerick, had, after marrying Catherine Smith of Fishamble Street (whose family belonged to Kiltale, co. Meath), commenced business in Dublin in 1801. In a few years the elder Mangan found himself bankrupt through ill-advised speculations in house property. The son James was educated at a school in Saul's Court, Dublin, where he learned Latin, Spanish, French, and Italian, under Father Graham, an erudite scholar. But at an early age he was obliged to obtain employment in order to support the family, which consisted of two brothers and a sister, besides his parents. For seven years he toiled in a scrivener's and for three years in an attorney's office, earning small wages, and being subject to merciless persecution from his fellow-clerks on account of his eccentricities of manner. He soon contracted a fatal passion for drink, from which he never freed himself. Dr. Todd, the eminent antiquary, gave him some employment in the library of Trinity College, and about 1833 Dr. Petrie found him a place in the office of the Irish ordnance survey, but his irregular habits prevented his success in any walk of life.

As early as 1822 Mangan had contributed ephemeral pieces of verse to various Dublin almanacs. These are enumerated in Mr. McCall's slight memoir. In 1831 he became a member of the Comet Club, which numbered some of the leading Dublin wits among its members, and he contributed verse to their journal, the 'Comet,' generally over the signature of 'Clarence,' which he subsequently adopted as one of his Christian names. He also wrote for a notorious sheet called 'The Dublin Penny Satirist.' He had mastered German in order to read German philosophy, and it was to the 'Comet' that he sent his first batch of German translations. In 1834 his first contribution to the 'Dublin University Magazine' appeared, and much prose and verse followed in the same periodical, the majority being articles on German poetry with translations. He also issued many pieces which he pretended were renderings from the Turkish, Persian, Arabic, and Coptic. He was wholly ignorant of those languages, but his wide reading in books about the East enabled him to give an oriental