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Oliphant
Oliphant
138

lating. In 1834 he took part in the chorus, as a bass vocalist, in the great Handel festival held in Westminster Abbey, and in the same year published, under the pseudonym ‘Solomon Sackbut,’ ‘Comments of a Chorus Singer at the Royal Musical Festival in Westminster' Abbey.' He also published in 1835 ‘A Brief Account of the Madrigal Society;’ in 1836, ‘A Short Account of Madrigals;’ in 1837 ‘La Musa Madrigalesca,' a volume containing the words of nearly four hundred ‘madrigals, ballets, and ronndelays. chiefly of the Elizabethan age, with remarks and annotations.’ In 1837 he composed the words and music of a madrigal, ‘Stay one Moment, gentle Sires,' which he produced as the work of an unknown seventeenth-century composer, Blasio Tomasi, and as such it was performed at the anniversary festival of the Madrigal Society. He wrote English versions of Beethoven‘s ‘Fidelio’ and the ‘Mount of Olives,’ and the words for numerous songs of Hatton and other composers. By desire of the directors of the Philharmonic Society he translated portions of Wagner’s opera ‘Lohengrin,’ which were performed by the society's orchestra and chorus, the composer conducting, at the Hanover Square Rooms in March 1855. He was engaged for some years in cataloguing the music in the British Museum, and he occasionally lectured in public on musical subjets. In 1871 he wus elected president of the Madrigal Society. He died unmarried, on 9 March 1873, in Great Marlborough Street, and in the following April his valuable collection of ancient music was sold by Messrs. Puttick & Simpson.

[Private knowledge.]

W. H. C.

OLIPHANT or OLIFARD, Sir WILLIAM (d. 1329), of Aberdnlgie, Perthshire, was eldest son of Sir Waltcr Olifard, justiciar of Lothian under Alexander I. This office was originally bestowed on his ancestor, David de Olifard, who, while a soldier in the army of King Stephen, rescued King David I of Scotland [q. v.] at the siege of Winchester Castle in ll4l, und enabled him to reach Scotland in safety. Sir William Oliphant's name first uppenrs as witness to a charter of John, earl of Atholl, some time before 1296 (Hist. MSS. Comm. 6th Rep. p. 690). Being taken prisoner at the capture of Dunbar Castle in l296, nfter the defeat of the Scots army by John de Warenne, earl of Surrey, he was on 16 May committed a prisoner to the castle of Devizes, where he remained till October 1297 (Cal. Documents relating to Scotland 1297-1307, entry 953) and then only received his release on condition of serving Edward I beyond the seas. While at Sandwich, previous to embarkation for Flushing, he and Edward de Ramsay were allowed 12d. a day, and each of their squires 6d. a day (Stevenson, Documents illustrative of the History of Scotland, ii. 40). Subsequently returned to Scotland, and and supported Wallace in his endeavour to uphold Scottish independence. On the capture of Stirling Castle from the English in 1299, he was entrusted with its defence by the governor, Sir John Foulis. After a feeble attempt to bar the progress of Edward in 1304, Comyn [see Comyn, John, the younger] gave in his submission to Edward, and Stirling Castle remained the sole fortress in Scotland that had not surrendered to the English king. Oliphant,on being commanded to give it up, replied that, having received the custody of it from Sir John Foulis, he could not hand it over to Edward without forfeiting his oath and honour as a knigbt, but if permitted would instantly go to France to inquire of Sir John Foulis what were his commands, and if they countenanced surrender he would obey them. But Edward, according to Langtoft, being then ‘full grim,' replied that he would agree to no such terms, and that Oliphant would retain the castle at his peril (Chronicle, p. 325). During the siege all the goods and chattels of Oliphant were seized by Edward and bestowed on Gilbert Malherbe (Cal. Documents relating to Scotland, 1272-1307, entry 1517). The siege continued for ninety days (Chronicon Galfridi le Baker, ed. Thompson p. 2), and the reduction of the castle taxed all Edward's ingenuity and resouces. Thirteen ‘great engynes’ were brought by him to batter down its defences (Langtoft, p. 326), the leaden roof of the refectory of St. Andrews being melted down to supply leaden balls for their use. The siege was under the immediate direction of Edward himself, who, in his eagerness to effect the fall of the castle, frequently exposed himself to imminent peril. For a long time the defenders held a decided advantage, but ultimately, by the use of Greek Fire and the construction of two immense machines for throwing stones and leaden balls, he made such breach on the inner walls, and so harassed the defenders, that Oliphant offered terms of surrender. It is stated that he stipulated for ‘the freedom of himself and the garrison, but that Edward ‘belied his troth' and broke through the conditions; for William Oliphant, the warden thereof, he threw bound ‘into prison, and kept long time in thrall' (John or Fordoun, ed. Skene, i. 336; Wyntoun, ed. Laing, ii. 362). The castle was surrendered on 24 July 1304 (Cal.