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O'Higgins
O'Higgins
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discourse of God’), of which there is a copy in the British Museum (Egerton MS. 111).

Cormac O'Higgin (fl. 1591), poet, son of Gillacolumb O'Higgin, wrote a lament of forty-five stanza on the death of Sir Donnehadh óg O'Connor Sligo, ‘Sion choitchenn ohumaidh Ghsoidhel' ('Common blast of Irish sorrow').

Maolmuire O‘Higgin (d. 1591), poet, brother of Tadhg dill O‘Higgin, became archbishop of Tuam, was a friend of O'Connor Sligo, and died at Antwerp, alter visiting Rome, early in 1591. He wrote a touching poem of twelve verses on the uncertainty of life, even in the time between sowing corn and eating bread, ‘A fhir threbas in tulaig’ (‘O man thot plougheet the hillside’), of which there is a copy in the British Museum (Egerton Ms. 111). He also wrote ‘A mir theidh go Iiodh funnidh’ (‘O man who goest to the land of sunset’), a poem in praise of Ireland, of 136 verses; and some religious poems.

Domhnall O'Higgin (fl. 1600), poet, son of Thomas O'Higgin, wrote a poem of 164 verses on the inauguration of Turlough Luinesch O‘Neill, 'Do thug Eire fear gaire' (‘Ireland has chosen a watchman').

[S. H. O'Grady's Catalogue of the Irish Manuscript's in the British Museum, in which several illustrative examples of the poems of the O'Higgins are printed for the first time, with excellent. translations; E. O'Reilly in Transactions of the Iberno-Celtic Society, Dublin, 1820; Annals Rioghachta Eireann, ed. O'Donovan, Dublin 1851; Tribes and Customs of Hy-Many. ed. O'Donovan; Annals of Loch Cé (Rolls Ser.), ed. Hennesy, 1871; Manuscripts in British Museum, Egerton 111 and Additional 29614.]

N. M.


O'HIGGINS, Don AMBROSIO, Marquis de Osorno (1720?–1801), viceroy of Peru, originally Ambrose Higgins, was born about 1720, of humble parents, on the Summerhill estate, near Dangan Castle, co. Meath, and as s small boy used to carry letters to the post for Lady Bective. He was sent to an uncle, a jesuit, in Cadiz, but, having no inclination for the church, went out with a small reel of rods to South America to try his fortune. On landed at Buenos Ayres, made his way across the pampas and cordilleras to Santiago, and thence to Lima, where he set up a stall under the platform of the cathedral, and hawked his goods as a pedlar, with little success. Subsequently he got leave to construct casuchas, or rest-places, in the cordillera, so as to open up a route between Chili and Mendoza, in which work he was employed about 1760. Ten years later the vieeroy of Chili sent him as a captain of cavalry against the Araucanian Indians, whom he defeated, and founded the fort of San Carlos, which still exists. He gained the goodwill of the Indians by his justice and humanity, and recovered some territory which the Spaniards had lost. In recognition of his services he was made a colonel 7 Sept. 1777, and me utter become a brigadier-genersl. In 1786 the viceroy Croix appointed him intendant of Concepcion. Ho entertained the French circumnavigator Galaup de la Pérouse with great courtesy when he visited Concepcion on his last voyage, He appears to have romsnoed to La Pérouse about is origin, as the Frenchman records that ‘Monsr. Higuins’ was one of those who suffered for their devotion to the Stuart cause. He founded the city of Sun Ambrosio do Ballenar, and constructed the road from Santiago to Valparaiso. In 1789 he became a major-general, and was appointed viceroy of Chili. At this time he prefixed the O' to his patronymic of Higgins. He sent home a sum of money to a London banking house for his relatives, and appointed as his almoner Father Kellet, the Irish priest of Summerhill, who reported that his kinsfolk were very poor and very improvident. In 1792 he rebuilt the city of Osorno, which had been burned by the Indians, and was created a marquis. In 1794 he became a lieutenant-general, and the year after viceroy of Peru. On 18 May 1796 he handed over the government of Chili to Rezabal y Ugarte, proceeded to Callao, and entered Lima in state on 24 July 1796. The eulogy pronounced st his public reception in the theatre of Lima, 10 Aug. 1796, was published (Brit. Mus.) Early in his vice-royalty he befriended his fellow-countrymen John or Juan Msckeunziq. v.], who thus commenced a distinguish career under his auspices.

When the was broke out between England and Spain in 1797, O'Higgins took active measures for the defence of the coast, strengthening Callao and erecting a fort at Pisco. During his brief administration he devoted his chief attention to the improvement of the lines of communication. He died suddenly st Lima, after a short illness, on 18 March 1801. He felt a natural son, Bemardo O'Higgins, born in 1780, and educated in England, who served on the popular side in Chili during the war of liberation, and became liberator of Chili and president of the congress. After passing many years in retirement, he died in 1846 (see Appleton; Diego Barras Arana, Historia General de Chile, 1891, and Brit. Mus. Cat.)

[Appleton' Enc. Amer. Biogr. under 'O'Higgins;' Markham's Hist. of Peru, Chicago, 1893.]

H. M. C.