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in September 1795 Coleridge again visited Stowey, when Poole wrote an enthusiastic copy of verses about his friend. Poole supported the ‘Watchman’ in 1796, in which Coleridge also published a paper of his upon the slave trade. He got up a small subscription of 40l., which was presented to Coleridge on the failure of the periodical, and which was repeated in 1797. Poole found Coleridge a cottage at Nether Stowey at the end of 1796. He also became intimate with Thomas Wedgwood and his brothers, to whom he introduced Coleridge. A lifelong friendship with Sir Humphry Davy was another result of the same connections. The friendship with Coleridge continued after Coleridge's voyage to Germany, and Mrs. Coleridge wrote annual letters to Poole for many years, showing her confidence in his continued interest. In October 1800 he wrote some letters upon ‘Monopolists and Farmers’ which Coleridge published, with some alterations, in the ‘Morning Post,’ and which are reprinted in Coleridge's ‘Essays on his own Times’ (ii. 413–55). In 1801 a slight tiff, arising from Poole's unwillingness or inability to lend as much as Coleridge had asked, was smoothed over by an affectionate letter from Coleridge on the death of Poole's mother. In 1807 Coleridge again visited Poole at Stowey after his return from Malta, when De Quincey, then making his first acquaintance with Coleridge, also saw Poole. In 1809 Poole advanced money for the ‘Friend.’ He corresponded with Coleridge occasionally in later years. He contributed to the support of Hartley Coleridge at Oxford, received him during vacations, and took his side in regard to the expulsion from Oriel. He saw Coleridge for the last time in 1834, and offered help for the intended biography.

Coleridge's correspondence shows that he thoroughly respected the kindness and common sense of Poole, who even ventures remarks upon philosophical questions. Although self-taught, Poole had made a good collection of books, and he was active in all local matters. He kept up a book society; was an active supporter of Sunday-schools, and formed a ‘Female Friendly Society.’ He was also much interested in the poor laws, and in 1804 was employed by John Rickman [q. v.] in making an abstract of returns ordered by the House of Commons from parish overseers (printed in May 1805). In 1805 Poole took into partnership Thomas Ward, who had been apprenticed to him in 1795, and to whom he left the charge of the business, occupying himself chiefly in farming. Poole was a man of rough exterior, with a loud voice injured by excessive snuff; abnormally sharp-tempered and overbearing in a small society. His apology for calling a man a ‘fool’ ended, ‘But how could you be such a damned fool?’ He was, however, heartily respected by all who really knew him; a staunch friend, and a sturdy advocate of liberal principles; straightforward and free from vanity. He died of pleurisy on 8 Sept. 1837, having been vigorous to the last. He never married, but was strongly attached to his niece, Elizabeth, daughter of his brother Richard, a doctor, who died in 1798, just at the time of her birth. Elizabeth was the ‘E’ of Mrs. Kemble's ‘Records of my Childhood,’ and married Archdeacon Sandford.

[Thomas Poole and his Friends, by Mrs. Henry Sandford, 2 vols. 8vo, 1888; Life of Coleridge by J. Dykes Campbell.]

L. S.

POOR or PAUPER, HERBERT (d. 1217), bishop of Salisbury, was son of Richard of Ilchester, bishop of Winchester [see Richard] (Madox, Formulare Anglicanum, pp. 47, 52). Richard Poor [q. v.], who succeeded him as bishop of Salisbury, was his younger brother. Dr. Stubbs suggests that he was connected with Roger Poor [see Roger], and therefore also with Roger of Salisbury and Richard FitzNeale. Canon Rich Jones conjectured that Poore was in this case the equivalent not of ‘pauper,’ but of ‘puer’ or the Norman ‘poer,’ a knight or cadet of good family (cf. Anglo-Saxon ‘cild’). He has also pointed out that near Tarrant in Dorset, where Herbert's brother Richard was born, there are places called Poorstock and Poorton.

Herbert was probably employed under his father in the exchequer, but the first mention of him is in 1175, when he was one of the three archdeacons appointed by Archbishop Richard of Canterbury; afterwards, in 1180, the archbishop reverted to the ancient practice, and made Herbert sole archdeacon. On 11 Dec. 1183 Herbert, in his capacity of archdeacon, enthroned Walter de Coutances [q. v.] as bishop of Lincoln. On 25 July 1184 he was one of the commissioners sent by Henry II to the monks of Christ Church, Canterbury, to warn them to prepare for the election of an archbishop (Gervase, i. 309). From 1185 to 1188 he had custody of the see of Salisbury (Madox, Hist. of Exchequer, i. 311, 634). Herbert was a canon of Lincoln and of Salisbury. In May 1186 the chapter of the former see elected him as their bishop, but Henry II refused his consent. A little later the