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Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 46.djvu/130

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Pope
Pope
124

in one centuny, and Wordsworth in another. As it was, his poetrv is the essence of the first half of the eipfhtoenth century. The later history of Pope's fame is the history of the process by which the canons of taste ceased to correspond to the strongest intellectual and social impulses of a new period. What was spontaneous in him became conventional and artiticial in his successors. Warton first proposed to place Pope in the second, instead of the first, class of poets. Cowper's 'Homer' was another indication of the change ; and, in the next century, the discussions in which Bowles, Koscoe, Campbell, and Byron took part, and the declarations of poetic faith by Wordsworth and Coleridge, corresponded to a revolution of taste, and showed, at any rate, how completely Pope's poetry represent the the typical characteristics of the earlier school.

Pope enlarged his villa, and he spent much time and money on improving his garden, with the help not only of the professional gardeners, Kent and Bridgeman, but of his friends. Lords Peterborough and Bathurst. A plan, with a short description, published by his gardener, Searle, in 1745, is reproduced in Carruthers's 'Life' ( pp. 445-9). The best description is in Walpole's 'Letters' (to Sir Horace Mann, 20 June 1760). His grotto was a tunnel, which still remains, under the Teddington road. He describes it in a letter to Edward Blount (2 June 1725). He ornamented it by spars and marbles, many of them sent by William Borlase [q. v.] from Cornwall. The garden included an obelisk to his mother, and the second weeping willow planted in England. The willow died in 1801, and was made into relics. After his death the house was sold to Sir William Stanhope, Lord Chesterfield's brother. In 1807 it came into the possession of the Baroness Howe, daughter of the admiral. She destroyed the house and stubbed up the trees. Thomas Young, a latter proprietor, built a new house, with a 'Chinese-Gothic tower,' which still stands near the site of the old villa (Thorne, Environs of London, pp. 634-7; Corbett, Memorials of Twickenham (1873), pp. 263-91). In 1888 the bicentenary of Pope's birth was celebrated by an exhibition at Twickenham of many interesting portraits and relics.

Pope was painted by Kneller in 1712, 1716, and 1721 ; by Jervas (an engraving from a portrait at Caen Wood, prefixed to vol. vi. of 'Works,' and a portrait exhibited by Mr. A. Morrison at Twickenham); by W. Hoare (exhibited by Messrs. Colnaghi at Twickenham by Jonathan Richardson (engraving at Hagley, prefixed to vol. i. of 'Works'), who also made various drawings (three made for Horace Walpole were exhibited by the queen at Twickenham, and fifteen drawing of Pope were included in a volume containing thirty-eight of Richardson's drawings) ; by Van Loo in 1742 ; and by Arthur Pond. Most of these have been engraved. The National Portrait Gallery has a portrait by Jervas with a lady (perhaps Martha Blount ), one by W. Hoare (crayons) of 1734, and one by Richardson, 1738. Mrs. Darell Blount also exhibited at Twickenham a portrait by an unknown painter, and portraits of Pope and Teresa and Martha Blount by Jervas, A 'Sketch from Life,' by G. Vertue, was exhibited at Twickenham by Sir Charles Dilke. A bust by Roubiliac, 'the original clay converted into terra-cotta,' was exhibited at Twickenham by John Murray (1808- 1892) [q. v.] the publisher, and an engraving is prefixed to vol. v. of the 'Works.' A marble bust by Rysbrach was presented to the Athenæum Club in 1861 by Edward Lowth Badeley [q. v.] An engraving from a drawing of Pope s mother bv Richardson is prefixed to vol. viii. of the 'Works.' Pope's works are : 1. 'January and May,' the 'Episode of Sarpedon' from the 'Iliad,' and the 'Pastorals' in Tonson's 'Poetical Miscellanies,' pt. vi., 1709. 2. 'Essay on Criticism,' 1711 [anon.] ; 2nd edit. 'by Mr. Pope,' 1713. 3. 'The First Book of Statius's Thebais,' 'Vertumnus and Pomona from the Fourth Book of Ovid's "Metamorphoses," ' 'To a Young Lady with the Works of Voiture,' 'To the Author of a Poem entitled "Successio," ' and the 'Rape of the Lock'- (first draft, without author's name), in Lintot's 'Miscellany,' 1712. 3. 'Sappho to Phaon' and 'Fable of Dryope' in Tonson's 'Ovid,' 1712. 4. 'The Messiah' in 'Spectator,' 30 Nov. 1712. 5. 'Windsor Forest,' 1713. 6. 'Prologue to Cato,' with play, and, in 'Guardian,' No. 33. Nos. 4, 11, 40, 61, 78, 91, 92, 173 of the 'Guardian' are also by Pope, 1713. 7. 'Narrative of Dr. Robert Norris concernig=ng the depolable frenzy of J[ohn] Denn...,' 1713. 8. 'Rape of the Lock.' with additions, 2 March 1714. The first complete edition. 9. 'Wife of Bath,' from Chaucer, the 'Arrival of Ulysses at Itliaca,' and the 'Gardens of Alcinous,' from the thirteenth and seventh books of the Lock : or a Treatise proving beyond all Contradiction the Dangerous Tendency of a late Poem intituled the "Rape of the Lock," to Government Religion. By Esdras Bamivelt, Apoth.,' 1715. 12. 'Iliad of Homer;