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their remaining in France on the condition that they should resign their offices. Primrose was obliged to quit the country. His banishment was mainly due to the jesuits, to whom he had given special offence.

On returning to London, he was chosen one of the ministers of the French church founded in the time of Edward VI, an appointment which he held till his death; and he was also made chaplain-in-ordinary to James I.

On 18 Jan. 1624–5 he was incorporated in the university of Oxford, receiving the degree of D.D. on the same day on the recommendation of the king, ample testimony having been borne to his high character and eminence as a theologian. Four years later his royal patron, with whom he was a great favourite, preferred him to a canonry of Windsor. He died in London in October or November 1642. An engraved portrait of Primrose is mentioned by Bromley. He had four sons—James (d. 1659) [q. v.], David, Stephen, and John.

His published works were: 1. ‘Le vœu de Jacob opposé aux vœux de Moines,’ 4 vols., Bergerac, 1610; translated into English by John Bultiel, London, 1617. 2. ‘La Trompette de Sion’ (18 sermons), Bergerac, 1610, of which a Latin edition was published at Danzig in 1631. 3. ‘La Defense de la Religion Reformée,’ Bergerac, 1619. 4. ‘Panegyrique à très grand et très puissant Prince Charles, Prince de Galles,’ Paris, 1624. 5. ‘The Christian Man's Tears and Christ's Comforts,’ London, 1625. 6. ‘Nine Sermons,’ London, 1625. 7. ‘The Table of the Lord,’ London, 1626.

[Wodrow's Lives in MSS. Univ. of Glasgow; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500–1714; Quick's Synodicon; m'Crie's Life of Andrew Melville; Wood's Fasti, i. 419; Allibone's Dict. of Engl. Lit.]

G. W. S.

PRIMROSE, JAMES (d. 1641), clerk of the privy council of Scotland, was the second son of Archibald Primrose of Culross and of Burnbrae, Perthshire, by Margaret Bleau of Castlehill, Perthshire. He belonged to a family of officials specially connected with the revenue department during the seventeenth century. His father, Archibald, a writer—i.e. a conveyancer or law agent—was employed in the comptroller's office under Sir James Hay, and at Hay's death in 1610 was entrusted with the collection of the arrears of taxation made in 1606, and received special leave of access to the meetings of the privy council and exchequer. His ability was shown by several pieces of special business entrusted to him—the collection of information as to the highlands and the monopoly of the publication of ‘God and the King,’ a catechism teaching high prerogative which James VI attempted through the privy council to disseminate in every household of Scotland.

James practised as a ‘writer’ or solicitor in Edinburgh. Probably he is the James Primrose who on 4 Nov. 1586 is mentioned as procurator for the city of Perth (Reg. P. C. Scotl. iv. 116). After acting for some time as ‘servant’ or assistant to John Andro, clerk of the privy council, he, on Andro's retirement, 1 Feb. 1598–9, was appointed clerk for life (ib. v. 521). On 13 June 1616 he obtained a monopoly of the printing and selling of the book ‘God and the King,’ the use of which was then made imperative in the schools and universities throughout Scotland (ib. x. 535). He died in 1641. By his first wife, Sibylla Miller, he had a son Gilbert, and six daughters, of whom Alison became the second wife of George Heriot [q. v.], jeweller to James VI. By his second wife, Catharine, daughter of Richard Lawson of Boghall, he had six daughters and six sons, of whom Archibald, afterwards Sir Archibald Primrose, lord Carrington [q. v.], succeeded him as clerk to the privy council.

[Douglas's Scottish Peerage (Wood), ii. 402; Reg. P. C. Scotl. v.–xi.; Calderwood's Hist. of the Kirk of Scotland.]

T. F. H.


PRIMROSE or PRIMEROSE, JAMES, M.D. (d. 1659), physician, son of Dr. Gilbert Primrose (1580?–1641) [q. v.], was born at St. Jean d'Angély, Charente-Inférieure. He studied at the university of Bordeaux (Popular Errors, p. 6), there graduated M.A., and then proceeded to Montpellier, where he took the degree of M.D. in 1617 (Astruc), and attended the lectures of John Varandaeus, professor of physic (Errors, p. 44). He was incorporated M.D. at Oxford in March 1628. On 9 Dec. 1629, at Dr. Argent's house in London, he was examined for admission to the license of the College of Physicians, William Harvey, M.D. [q. v.], being one of his examiners (manuscript annals). He passed, and was admitted the following day. He settled in Hull, and there practised his profession. His first book appeared in London in 1630: 'Exercitationes et Animadversiones in Librum Gulielmi Harvaei de Motu Cordis et Circulatione Sanguinis,' and is an attempt to refute Harvey's demonstration of the circulation of the blood. His 'Animadversiones in J. Walaei Disputationem,' Amsterdam, 1639, 'Animadversiones in Theses D. Henrici le Roy,' Leyden, 1640, and 'Antidotum adversus Spongium venatum Henrici Regii,' Leyden, 1640, are further arguments on the same subject. Harvey made no reply. In 1631 Primrose published at Oxford 'Academia Monspeliensis descripta,' 4to, dedicated to Thomas Clayton, regius