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Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 46.djvu/50

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Pole
Pole
44


v. 88, has inaccurately headed 'Collegio Oxoniensi'). On 26 Oct. following Oxford paid him the same honour, on the resignation of Sir John Mason [q. v.] 'He had previously issued a commission for the visitation of both universities, and he soon manifested his activity in revising the statutes at Oxford. Ignatius Loyola had invited him to send English youths to Rome for their education, but Pole, much occupied with the reform of the English church and universities, apparently found no opportunity to accept this invitation (Epp. v. 115-20). He was interested in Loyola's new Society of Jesus, and Loyola on his part followed with admiration Pole's work in England. They had corresponded at times from the days of Pole's government of Viterbo.

Both Mary and Pole had underestimated the difficulties of reconciling the realm to Rome. With regard to church property, the most ample papal indulgence could not allay all disquiet when the sovereign herself declined to take advantage of it, and was surrendering the religious property in the hands of the crown. The abrogated laws against heresy had been revived by parliament just before Pole's arrival in England, and his connection with their enforcement was merely official. But, like Sir Thomas More and all good catholics of the old school, he thought the propagation of false opinion an evil for which no punishment was too extreme. With the actual conduct of prosecutions he seems to have had nothing to do (cf. Dixon, Hist. of the Church of England, iv. 573). Three condemned heretics in Bonner's diocese were pardoned on an appeal to him. He merely enjoined a penance and gave them absolution (ib. p. 582).

But Pole had to face difficulties in an unexpected quarter. Paul IV, a hot-blooded Neapolitan, longed to drive the Spaniards out of Naples. War broke out between him and Philip in Italy, and Pole found that his sovereign had become the pope's enemy. He strongly urged on Philip the unseemliness of making war on Christ's vicar. But the storm extended itself ; the pope made alliance with France, and the war so recently suspended between France and Spain was again renewed. Pole now urged Mary not to declare herself against France on account of her husband's quarrel. But Philip came back to England in March 1557 with the express object of implicating her in his struggle with France, upon which Pole retired to his cathedral city, explaining to him privately that the pope's legate could not visit the pope's enemy. In April, however, Paul IV withdrew all his legates from Philip's dominions and cancelled the legation of Pole. Sir Edward Carne, the English ambassador at Rome, remonstrated. England was neutral, and the condition of the country specially required a legate. The pope recognised his error, and lamely directed that the native legateship always attached to the see of Canterbury should not be included in the act of revocation.

The clouds did not disperse. England was dragged into the war, and Pole was summoned from Canterbury by the king and queen, on pain of their displeasure. Philip and Mary wrote joint letters to the pope for the full restoration of Pole's legateship. Paul said it would be unbecoming his dignity to give back to Pole what he had taken from him ; besides, he wanted all his cardinals at Rome, to consult with him in those difficult times. Still, as Mary wished for a legate in England, he appointed in Pole's place her old confessor, Friar William Peto [q. v.] A brief was sent to Pole relieving him of his legateship, and requiring his presence at Rome. Mary, against Pole's wish, directed the papal messenger to be detained at Calais, and requested Pole to continue his legatine functions. Pole refused, and despatched his auditor, Niccolo Ormanetto, to Rome to inform the pope of the state of the case (see extracts from his unprinted letter to the pope in Dixon's Hist. of the Church of England, iv. 674-5, n.) He objected that the pope had not only deprived him of his legation, but insinuated that he was a heretic ; and that no pope had ever called a legate into suspicion on such grounds while actually exercising his legatine functions, or had replaced him by another, without first citing him to plead his own cause and justify himself of the charge (Strype, Eccl. Memorials, iii. 34, ed. 1822). Ormanetto was admitted to an audience by the pope on 4 Sept., and spoke discreetly in Pole's behalf.

The fortunes of war had just compelled Paul to conclude a peace with Philip, and he found it expedient to be conciliatory. He assured Ormanetto that he considered the rumours of Pole's heresy malicious, and said that he would send his nephew, Cardinal Caraffa, to Flanders to arrange all differences. But to others he maligned Pole as a heretic with a malevolence almost suggesting insanity, and spoke with bitterness of all Pole's friends. He had imprisoned Pole's disciple, Cardinal Morone, mainly because he was a disciple of Pole. When the Venetian ambassador at Rome requested the pope to give the bishopric of Brescia to Pole's ardent admirer and constant companion in England and abroad, Priuli, Paul said he