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first two were the most popular; the last, owing to the painful nature of the subject, proved a comparative failure. Raimbach subsequently engraved two other plates after Wilkie, ‘The Parish Beadle,’ 1834, and ‘The Spanish Mother,’ 1836. In 1824 and 1825 he paid further visits to Paris, where he was well received by the leading French engravers; in 1835 he was elected a corresponding member of the Institute of France. After Wilkie's death in 1841 the six plates which were the joint property of himself and Raimbach were sold with the stock of prints at Christie's.

Raimbach died at his house at Greenwich, of water on the chest, on 17 Jan. 1843, and was buried beside his parents at Hendon, Middlesex, where there is a mural tablet to his memory in the church. His ‘Memoirs and Recollections,’ written in 1836, were privately printed in 1843 by his son, Michael Thomson Scott Raimbach, who at his death in 1887 bequeathed to the National Portrait Gallery an excellent portrait of his father, painted by Wilkie. Another son, David Wilkie, a godson of the painter, exhibited portraits at the academy from 1843 to 1855; he was for twenty years headmaster of the Birmingham school of art, and, until within a few weeks of his death, an examiner for the science and art department. He died 20 Feb. 1895, aged 74. A daughter exhibited miniatures at the academy between 1835 and 1855.

[Raimbach's Memoirs and Recollections, 1843; Graves's Dict. of Artists, 1760–1893; information from Rev. N. Mant; Times, 22 Feb. 1895.]

F. M. O'D.

RAINBOROW, RAINBOROWE, or RAINSBOROUGH, THOMAS (d. 1648), soldier, was the son of Captain William Rainborow [q. v.] One sister, Martha, married Governor John Winthrop [q. v.], and Judith, another sister, married Governor Winthrop's fourth son, Col. Stephen Winthrop. A brother William was major in the parliamentary army. Thomas was brought up to the sea. At the outbreak of the civil war he served in the parliamentary fleet, is mentioned as commander of the Swallow, a ship of 34 guns, in 1643, and captured a ship conveying reinforcements to the king (Penn, Memorials of Sir William Penn, i. 66; Commons' Journals, iii. 137). Rainborowe next assisted Lord Fairfax in the defence of Hull, and was taken prisoner in the sally which forced the Marquis of Newcastle to raise the siege. On this occasion he is described as colonel, and he now definitely entered the land service (ib. iii. 302; Report on the Portland MSS. i. 138). In December 1644 he recaptured Crowland (Vicars, Burning Bush, p. 76). The regiment which he raised in the Earl of Manchester's army was largely officered by returned emigrants from New England (Winthrop, History of New England, ii. 300). At the formation of the new model army Rainborowe was given the command of a regiment. On 1 June 1645 he captured Gaunt House, near Oxford. He fought at Naseby and at the sieges of Bridgwater, Sherborne, and Bristol; took Nunney Castle on 20 Aug. and Berkeley Castle on 25 Sept. In December 1645 Rainborowe's regiment was sent to blockade Oxford, and on 26 April 1646 Woodstock surrendered to him (Sprigge, Anglia Rediviva, ed. 1854, pp. 25, 41, 77, 100, 116, 130, 174, 253). Charles attempted to utilise the negotiations for the surrender of Woodstock to treat for his own reception by the army, but Rainborowe refused to meddle, and simply reported the king's proposals to the speaker (Archæologia, xlvi. 18). After the capitulation of Oxford, Rainborowe was charged to besiege Worcester, and was recommended by Fairfax to parliament to be made governor of that city (Sprigge, p. 291; Cary, Memorials of the Civil War, i. 137).

In 1646 Rainborowe entered the House of Commons as member for Droitwich. In May 1647 parliament appointed him to command the forces designed for the recovery of Jersey, but at the end of the month his regiment mutinied and joined the rest of the army in the opposition to disbandment (ib. i. 221; Commons' Journals, v. 159, 184, 193; Clarke Papers, i. 105). When the army marched on London, Rainborowe commanded the forces which occupied Southwark (Rushworth, vii. 750, 752). In the political discussions held in the council of the army he was the leader of the republican section among the officers, opposed any further negotiations with the king, and advocated manhood suffrage. The ‘honest men of England,’ he argued, had fought for their liberties, and at any risk it was the army's duty to secure them those liberties. ‘It is a poor service,’ he said, ‘to God and the kingdom to take their pay and decline their work’ (ib. vol. i. pp. lxxiv, 246, 320). At the rendezvous at Ware (15 Nov. 1647) Rainborowe was active in promoting the agreement of the people, and on the complaint of Fairfax was summoned by the commons to answer for his conduct. Two months earlier (27 Sept. 1647) he had been appointed vice-admiral, and ordered to take command at once of the ships appointed for the winter guard; but his political escapades hindered