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receiving the elements of education under his father, with William Beloe [q. v.] for a schoolfellow, he was admitted a scholar of the Charterhouse, on the king's nomination—obtained, it is said (Beloe, Sexagenarian, annotated copy, i. 10), through the interest of Lord Percy, a patron of his father—in June 1772. In 1778 he went up as an exhibitioner to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated as sixteenth wrangler in 1782 (M.A. 1785, B.D. 1794, D.D. 1799). In 1783 and 1784 he gained the members' university prize, and in the latter year was made fellow of his college.

After some time spent in tuition, Raine was appointed headmaster of Charterhouse school on 7 June 1791, in succession to Dr. Berdmore. Charles Burney was one of his competitors. Here he remained till his death. In 1803 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society, and in 1809 was chosen preacher of Gray's Inn. In July 1810 he was presented to the rectory of Hallingbury, Essex, in the gift of the governors of the Charterhouse, and died unmarried on 17 Sept. 1811.

He was buried in the chapel of the Charterhouse, where there is a gravestone in the south aisle inscribed M. R., and a mural tablet on the adjoining wall by Flaxman, with an epitaph by Samuel Parr. Parr and Porson were his intimate friends. His choice collection of classical books, including many Aldines and rare editions, went by bequest, after the death of his brother Jonathan, to the library of Trinity College, Cambridge (Notes and Queries, 6th ser. iv. 323). This brother, a schoolfellow of Porson's at Eton, and afterwards at Trinity (B.A. 1787, M.A. 1790), was member of parliament for Newport in Cornwall (Nichols, Lit. Anecd. ix. 94 n.)

Raine is described as eloquent in the pulpit and dignified in manner. The latter part of this description is borne out by his portrait, reputed to be by Hoppner, in the master's lodge at the Charterhouse. The Society of Schoolmasters owed much to his liberality. His only published works are two sermons.

[Parr's Works, 1828, iv. 612; references in Parriana; Beloe's Septuagenarian, i. 9–12, 245–246; Annual Biography, 1819, p. 30; Gent. Mag. lxxxii. pt. i. p. 403, lxxxi. pt. ii. p. 294; Blanchard's Charterhouse, 1849, p. 108; Registers of Charterhouse Chapel (Harleian Society's publications), xviii. 67; Haig-Brown's Charterhouse Past and Present; Watson's Life of Porson, 1861, pp. 20, 313, 337; information from Canon Elwyn, master of the Charterhouse, Rev. H. V. Le Bas, and Professor John E. B. Mayor.]

J. H. L.

RAINES, FRANCIS ROBERT (1805–1878), antiquary, the descendant of an old Yorkshire family, third son of Isaac Raines, M.D., of Burton Pidsea in Holderness, by Ann, daughter of Joseph Robertson, was born at Whitby, Yorkshire, on 22 Feb. 1805. He received his early education at Burton Pidsea, but when thirteen years old was sent to Clitheroe, Lancashire, as apprentice to William Coultate, surgeon, who afterwards removed to Burnley in the same county. Raines during his apprenticeship went to the Clitheroe and Burnley grammar schools. But finding the medical profession uncongenial, he was released from his engagement, and in 1826 was admitted to St. Bees' Theological College. He was ordained in 1828, and became assistant curate of Saddleworth on the Lancashire and Yorkshire border. He soon afterwards took a curacy at the Rochdale parish church, the vicar of which appointed him in 1832 perpetual curate of the chapelry of St. James, Milnrow, near Rochdale, where he remained for the rest of his life. He was the means of rebuilding the church there and of providing schools and parsonage. The Earl of Dunmore appointed him his domestic chaplain in 1841. The archbishop of Canterbury bestowed on him the diploma of M.A. in 1845. He was rural dean of Rochdale from 1846 to 1877, and an honorary canon of Manchester Cathedral from 1849. On 30 March 1843 he was elected F.S.A.

In the same year he was one of the originators, with Dr. Edward Holme, James Crossley, Canon Parkinson, and others, of the Chetham Society, serving from the first on the council, and succeeding Parkinson as vice-president in 1858. He was one of the chief authorities in local history—especially biography and family history—and his stores of exact and well-ordered information were drawn upon by many of the editors of the long series of volumes issued by the society. He himself contributed some of the most valuable of its works, namely: 1. Bishop Gastrell's ‘Notitia Cestriensis, or Historical Notices of the Diocese of Chester,’ 4 vols. 1845–50. 2. ‘The Journal of Nicholas Assheton’ (1617–18), 1848. 3. ‘The Stanley Papers,’ 4 vols. 1853–67. 4. ‘The Poems and Correspondence of the Rev. Thomas Wilson, D.D., of Clitheroe,’ 1857. 5. ‘The History of the Lancashire Chantries,’ 2 vols. 1862. 6. ‘Lancashire Funeral Certificates,’ 1869. 7. Flower's ‘Visitation of Lancashire,’ 1870. 8. St. George's ‘Visitation of Lancashire,’ 1861. 9. Dugdale's ‘Visitation of Lancashire’ (with memoir of Sir W. Dugdale), 3 vols. 1870–3. 10. ‘Chetham Mis-