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the microscope, and taught its use to students as early as 1846, when the instrument was little employed in medicine. He was celebrated for his skill in the use of minute injections, and published some papers in the ‘Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science.’ His name is commemorated in ‘Rainey's Capsules,’ a term still often quoted, especially in German pathological works, referring to minute parasites (now known as psorosperms) which he detected in the muscles. All his work was characterised by the most scrupulous accuracy and conscientiousness.

A man of simple habits, absorbed in scientific pursuits, Rainey lived a somewhat solitary life, but among his friends were Dr. Hodgkin the physician, Mr. Grainger the physiologist, and Sir Richard Owen, who valued Rainey's work very highly. His own immediate pupils, among them Dr. Bristowe and Dr. William Ord, have warmly acknowledged the value of his stimulus and guidance in scientific research, and of his powerful moral influence, which was dominant over many generations of students.

His portrait, in crayons, by his son, Mr. William Rainey, member of the Institute of Water-Colour Painters, is at St. Thomas's Hospital.

[Memoir by W. W. Wagstaffe in St. Thomas's Hospital Reports, vol. xxii. 1894 (with portrait); personal recollections.]

J. F. P.

RAINFORTH, ELIZABETH (1814–1877), vocalist, daughter of S. Rainforth, a custom-house officer, was a pupil of T. Cooke, Crivelli, and George Perry, and subsequently, for dramatic action, of Mrs. Davison. She first sang in public at the vocal concerts, 29 Feb. 1836, when she sang an aria from ‘Der Freischütz’ (cf. Spectator, 1836, p. 223). Her success was so pronounced as to lead to an immediate engagement for the succeeding concert in March. On 27 Oct. in the same year Miss Rainforth made her stage début as Mandane in Arne's ‘Artaxerxes’ at the St. James's Theatre, and for many seasons she was a popular dramatic singer at this theatre, the English Opera House, Covent Garden, and Drury Lane. At the same time her services as a concert-singer were in great demand. In 1837 she appeared in oratorio under the auspices of the Sacred Harmonic Society; on 18 March 1839 she sang at the Philharmonic concerts; and in 1840 at the Concerts of Ancient Music. In 1836 and 1842 she was a principal singer at the Norwich Festival (cf. Musical World, 1836, p. 43). In 1843 and 1845 her success at the Birmingham and Worcester festivals was no less emphatic; in 1844 she was performing in Dublin. On 27 Nov. 1843 she created the rôle of Arline in Balfe's ‘Bohemian Girl.’ From 1852 to 1856 she lived in Edinburgh, and she practically retired from public life in 1859. Until 1871 she taught singing at Windsor. In 1871 she withdrew to Chatterton Villa, Redland, near Bristol, where she died 22 Sept. 1877. Miss Rainforth was an admirable singer, but lacked sufficient power to place her in the foremost rank of great sopranos.

[Authorities quoted in the text; Musical World, 1877, p. 653; Spectator, 1843, p. 1136; Athenæum, 1836, p. 179; Grove's Dict. of Music and Musicians; Philharmonic Society's lists.]

R. H. L.

RAINIER, PETER (1741?–1808), admiral, grandson of Daniel Regnier or Rainier, of a Poitevin family, who came to England on the revocation of the edict of Nantes, was son of Peter Rainier of Sandwich, by his wife, Sarah Spratt. He entered the navy in 1756 on board the Oxford, from which, in February 1758, he was moved to the Yarmouth, and on her arrival in the East Indies in March 1758 to the Tiger, in which he was present in the several actions of 29 April and 3 Aug. 1758 and 10 Sept. 1759 [see Pocock, Sir George]. In June 1760 he was moved to the Norfolk, bearing the flag of Rear-admiral Charles Stevens [q. v.] at the siege of Pondicherry, and afterwards of Vice-admiral Samuel Cornish [q. v.] at the reduction of Manila. In 1764 the Norfolk returned to England and was paid off. During the following years Rainier was probably employed under the East India Company. He passed his examination on 2 Feb. 1768, being then, according to his certificate, more than twenty-six. On 26 May 1768 he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant, but had no service in the navy till January 1774, when he was appointed to the Maidstone, commanded by Captain Alan Gardner (afterwards lord Gardner) [q. v.], in the West Indies. On 3 May 1777 he was promoted by Vice-admiral Clark Gayton [q. v.] to the command of the Ostrich sloop, and in her on 8 July 1778 captured a large American privateer after a hard-fought action, in which he was severely wounded (Beatson, Nav. and Mil. Mem. iv. 404). In approval of his conduct on this occasion the admiralty advanced him to post rank on 29 Oct. following, and in January 1779 appointed him to the Burford of 64 guns. In her he went out to the East Indies in the squadron under Sir Edward Hughes [q. v.], and took part in all the operations of the war, including the re-