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refutation, and a fulsome dedication to Jeffries. Turner says Ram's catechism was virtually official, and had done much harm in its day. In 1645 Ram published, in quarto, ‘Pædobaptism, or a Defence of Infant Baptism,’ dedicated to Colonel Edward Rossiter, whose chaplain he was. It is a learned treatise against the anabaptists, urging the unbroken usage of thirteen hundred years, and the practical agreement of fathers, old divines, and modern protestant authorities. On 27 March 1646, a day of humiliation for the army before Newark, he preached a sermon at Balderton, which was published in quarto. The text was ‘Do violence to no man, neither accuse any falsely, and be content with your wages.’ The political argument is the same as that in the ‘Soldiers' Catechism.’ The king is the highest person, but the parliament the highest power, and every soul is bound to be subject to the higher powers. The sermon was preached in presence and by command of the committee of both houses accompanying the army. In 1655 Ram was still minister of Spalding, being nearly sixty years of age, and published the ‘Country-man's Catechism,’ with a dedication to his parishioners, which seems to be his last appearance as an author.

[Ware's Irish Bishops, ed. Harris; Cotton's Fasti Ecclesiæ Hiberniæ, vol. ii.; Morrin's Cal. of Irish Patent Rolls, Charles I; Mant's Hist. of Irish Church; Cooper's Memorials of Cambridge—King's College; Bishop Ram's account of his diocese in 1612, printed in App. to 2nd Rep. of Commissioners on Public Records of Ireland; Divers Remarkable Passages, &c., by Robert Ram, London, 3 June 1643.]

R. B-l.

RAMADGE, FRANCIS HOPKINS, M.D. (1793–1867), medical writer, born in 1793, was eldest son of Thomas Ramadge of Dublin. He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, where he graduated B.A in 1816 and M.B. and M.A. in 1819. He was incorporated on his M.B. degree at Oxford as a member of St. Alban Hall on 4 May 1821, and proceeded M.D. on 27 June following (Foster, Alumni Oxon. 1715–1888, iii. 1172). Ramadge was admitted an inceptor-candidate of the College of Physicians on 26 June 1820, a candidate on 1 Oct. 1821, and a fellow on 30 Sept. 1822. He was censor in 1825. He established himself in London, where he became successively physician to the Central Infirmary and Dispensary, and lecturer there on the principles and practice of medicine and chemistry, and senior physician to the infirmary for asthma, consumption, and other diseases of the lungs. He died at 12 Clarges Street, Piccadilly, on 8 June 1867.

Besides contributions to the ‘Lancet,’ ‘Medical Times,’ and ‘Notes and Queries,’ Ramadge wrote: 1. ‘Consumption Curable,’ 8vo, London, 1834; 2nd edit. 1838; 3rd edit. 1842. An American edition appeared at New York in 1839; it was also translated into German by Dr. Hohnbaum, and into French by Dr. Lebeau. 2. ‘On Asthma and Diseases of the Heart’ (2nd edit. 8vo, London, 1847). A translation, with notes, of Laennec's ‘Treatise on Mediate Auscultation,’ 8vo, London, 1846, which was seen through the press by Theophilus Herbert, M.D., was ‘essentially the work of Dr. Ramadge.’

[Munk's Coll. of Phys. 1878, iii. 263; Medical Times and Gazette, 15 June 1867, p. 672; Allibone's Dict. of Authors, ii. 1731; Lond. and Prov. Med. Directory, 1865, p. 136; Times, 13 June 1867; Notes and Queries, 6th ser. x. 478.]

G. G.

RAMAGE, CRAUFURD TAIT (1803–1878), miscellaneous writer, born at Annefield, near Newhaven, on 10 Sept. 1803, was educated successively at Wallace Hall Academy, Dumfriesshire, at the Edinburgh high school, and the university, where he graduated M.A. in 1825. While at the university he took private pupils, including Archibald Campbell Tait, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury, with whom he maintained a lifelong friendship. After leaving college Ramage became tutor in the family of Sir Henry Lushington, and spent three years with his pupils in Naples, afterwards making the tour of Italy. For fifteen years after his return he was tutor in the family of Thomas Spring-Rice, afterwards Lord Monteagle [q. v.] He devoted his leisure to literary pursuits, and contributed to the ‘Quarterly Journal of Education,’ the ‘Penny Cyclopædia,’ and the seventh edition of the ‘Encyclopædia Britannica.’

In 1841 Ramage was appointed vice-master of Wallace Hall Academy, and he succeeded, on the death of Dr. Mundell, to the rectorship in 1842. He was nominated a justice of the peace for Dumfriesshire in 1848, and the degree of LL.D. was conferred upon him by the university of Glasgow in 1852. He died at Wallace Hall on 29 Nov. 1878.

He published four anthologies, entitled ‘Beautiful Thoughts,’ respectively ‘from Greek Authors, with English Translations, and Lives of the Authors,’ Liverpool, 1864, 8vo; ‘from Latin Authors, with English Translations,’ Liverpool, 1864, 8vo; 3rd edit. enlarged, 1877, 8vo; ‘from French and Italian Authors, with English Translations and Lives of the Authors,’ Liverpool, 1866, 8vo; ‘from German and Spanish Authors,’ Liverpool, 1868, 8vo. His other works are: