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Architects, Pullan read papers on ‘Classic Art’ on 24 May 1871; ‘Decoration of Basilicas and Byzantine Churches,’ 15 Nov. 1875; ‘Works of the late W. Burges,’ 17 April 1882; ‘Decoration of the Dome of St. Paul's Cathedral,’ 4 Dec. 1882.

[Personal knowledge; Pullan's Works.]

G. A-n.

PULLEIN. [See Pullen.]

PULLEN, JOSIAH (1631–1714), vice-principal of Magdalen Hall, Oxford, born in 1631, matriculated at Oxford in 1650. He graduated B.A. in 1654 and M.A. in 1657, and in the same year became vice-principal of the hall, which office he retained till his death. Among his pupils were Robert Plot in 1659, Richard Stafford in 1677, and Thomas Yalden the poet. Magdalen Hall under Dr. Henry Wilkinson [q. v.] was a stronghold of puritanism; but Pullen appears to have stood well with the royalist authorities. In September 1661 Clarendon, visiting Oxford as chancellor, refused the invitation of Wilkinson, the president, to the hall with the remark that he ‘entertained factious people, and but one honest man among them,’ meaning, says Wood, Pullen (Wood, Life, ed. Clark, i. 415). About this time Pullen became ‘domesticall chaplain’ to Robert Sanderson [q. v.], bishop of Lincoln, was present at his death on 10 Jan. 1663, and preached the sermon at his funeral (Sanderson, Works, ed. Jacobson, vi. 344–9, cf. ii. 142, and Wood, Athenæ Oxon. iii. 626, 628).

In 1675 Pullen became minister of St. Peter's-in-the-East at Oxford, and in 1684 rector of Blunsdon St. Andrew, Wiltshire; he held both livings till his death (Foster, Alumni Oxon.) In 1684 he was one of the original members of the Oxford Chemical Society. He died on 31 Dec. 1714, and was buried in the lady-chapel on the north side of St. Peter's-in-the-East, where there is a slab with a short epitaph by T. Wagstaffe.

Pullen, who was familiarly known as ‘Joe Pullen,’ was long remembered in the university on account of his eccentricities. The many stories which were related of him in ‘common rooms’ mainly illustrated his simplicity and absence of mind. He was a great walker. His constant walking companion was Alexander Padsey (1636–1721), fellow of Magdalen. An elm tree, which he planted at the head of the footpath from Oxford to Headington, was for a century and a half called by his name (Gent. Mag. 1795, ii. 962). It grew to great proportions, but in 1894 was cut down to a mere stump.

There is a half-length portrait of Pullen at Hertford College (formerly Magdalen Hall), and a shorter copy of the same in the Bodleian picture-gallery; the latter is attributed to one Byng, was engraved in stipple by E. Harding, and published on 1 Oct. 1796.

[Authorities cited above; Bloxam's Reg. Magdalen College, i. 109, v. 245, vi. 113; Noble's Biogr. Hist. ii. 138; Wood's Life; Hearne's Diaries, passim, esp. vol. v.]

H. E. D. B.

PULLEN, ROBERT (d. 1147?), philosopher, theologian, and cardinal, whose name also appears as Polenius, Pullenus, Pullein, Pullan, and Pully, is said to have come from Exeter to Oxford, and to have remained at Oxford for five years (Annals of Oseney). In 1133 ‘he began to read at Oxford the divine scriptures, the study of which had grown obsolete in England.’ He is thus, with one exception (Theobaldus Stampensis), the first master known to have taught in the schools—not yet the university—of Oxford. According to John of Hexham (Continuation of Sym. Dunelm in Raine's Priory of Hexham, Surtees Soc. i. 152), Pullen refused a bishopric offered him by Henry I. Subsequently he taught logic and theology at Paris. John of Salisbury was his pupil there (Metalogicus, i. 24) in 1141 or 1142, and describes him as a man ‘whom his life and learning alike commended.’ In 1134 and 1143 Pullen is mentioned as archdeacon of Rochester (Le Neve), and, probably a little before the latter date, St. Bernard (Ep. 205) wrote to apologise to Pullen's diocesan, the bishop of Rochester, for detaining him at Paris, ‘on account of the wholesome doctrine that is in him.’ St. Bernard reproached the bishop, however, for ‘stretching out his hand upon the goods of the appellant after his appeal was made,’ which looks as if the bishop had taken proceedings against him for non-residence.

In the same letter St. Bernard spoke of Pullen as ‘of no small authority in the court’ (i.e. probably of Rome). There is no doubt that Pullen settled in Rome in his last years, but the exact date of his arrival there is uncertain. According to Ciaconius, Robert Pullen was ‘called’ to Rome by Innocent II (who died in September 1143), and was created a cardinal by Cœlestine II, Innocent II's successor. This is probably correct. The ‘Annals of Oseney’ state less convincingly that Pullen, after both the Anglican and Gallican churches had profited by his doctrine, was called to Rome by Lucius II, who became pope in 1144 (‘Annals of Oseney,’ in Annales Monastici, ed. Luard, Rolls Ser. iv. 19, 20; Bodl. MS. 712, f. 275, quoted in Rashdall, Universities of the Middle Ages, ii. 335). All authorities agree that Pope Lucius promoted Pullen to the chancellorship of the