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brother Canon George Rawlinson's ‘Herodotus’ (1858) and to Ferrier's ‘Caravan Journeys’ (1856). In 1875 he published ‘England and Russia in the East,’ which provoked much controversy by its outspoken views and unquestionable knowledge of the facts of Central Asian diplomacy.

[Personal knowledge; information from Canon George Rawlinson; Athenæum, 9 March 1895; Times, 6 March 1895; R. N. Cust in Annual Report of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1895; Sir F. J. Goldsmid in Geographical Journal, v. 490–497; Cordier's notice in Compte rendu of Paris Société de Géographie, 1895; Sir John Evans in Numismatic Chronicle, 3rd ser. vol. xv., Proceedings, pp. 26–8.]

S. L-P.

RAWLINSON, JOHN (1576–1631), principal of St. Edmund Hall, Oxford, son of Robert Rawlinson, merchant tailor of London, was born in 1576 and admitted to Merchant Taylors' School in 1585 (Robinson, Register of Merchant Taylors' School). Thence he was elected scholar of St. John's College, Oxford, in 1591, and graduated B.A. 5 July 1595, and M.A. 21 May 1599. In the latter year he was acting as a college lecturer (Oxford Univ. Reg. ed. Clark, i. 93), and is stated to have been master of Reading school in 1600. He was elected a fellow of his college in 1602, taking holy orders and proceeding B.D. 12 Nov. 1605, and D.D. 1 June 1608. He soon gained high repute as a ‘fluent and florid preacher.’ From 1606 to 1610 he was rector of Taplow, Buckinghamshire; and from 1609 was vicar of Asheldam in Essex. On 1 May 1610 the provost and fellows of Queen's College elected him principal of St. Edmund Hall. He was also made chaplain to Thomas Egerton, baron Ellesmere [q. v.], the lord chancellor, and chaplain-in-ordinary to James I, and was instituted to the prebend of Netherbury in Ecclesia at Salisbury, in which at his death he was succeeded by the well-known Thomas Fuller. In 1613 he was inducted to the rectory of Selsey (Sussex), and in the following year to that of Whitchurch, Shropshire, ‘in all which places he was much followed for his frequent and edifying preaching, great charity, and public spirit’ (Wood, Athenæ Oxon. ii. 505). He spent much time in Oxford, where in 1627 he built a new house, and was in confidential relations with Juxon and Laud (cf. State Papers, Dom. Car. I. lxxxvii.).

He died on 3 Feb. 1630–1, and was buried on the 10th in the church at Whitchurch, where his name long continued to be ‘precious.’ In the church of St. Peter's-in-the-East, Oxford, there is a curious inscription in English verse to Rawlinson's two younger daughters, Elizabeth (d. 1624) and Dorothy (d. 1629). Rawlinson published numerous separate sermons and one collected volume, entitled ‘Quadriga Salutis, foure Quadrigesmal or Lent Sermons preached at Whitehall,’ Oxford, 1625, dedicated to the prince (Charles). He contributed verses to Vaughan's ‘Golden Grove moralised,’ 1600.

[Authorities cited; Le Neve's Fasti, iii. 594; Foster's Alumni Oxon.; Gutch's Antiq. i. 540; Lansd. MS. 984, f. 109.]

W. A. S.

RAWLINSON, RICHARD (1690–1755), topographer and nonjuring bishop, was fourth son (among fifteen children) of Sir Thomas Rawlinson [q. v.], and younger brother of Thomas Rawlinson (1681–1725) [q. v.] Born on 3 Jan. 1689–90, he was educated, first at St. Paul's School, and afterwards, from 1707, at Eton. Thence, at the age of eighteen, he went to St. John's College, Oxford, being matriculated as a commoner on 9 March 1707–8, but after the death of his father in that year he became in 1709 a gentleman commoner. He graduated B.A. on 10 Oct. 1711, and M.A. on 5 July 1713. In that year, on 31 July and 3 Oct., he became a governor of Bridewell and Bethlehem Hospitals, of which his father had been president (appointments which he appears to have valued highly), and on 29 June 1714 was elected a fellow of the Royal Society, being formally admitted on 13 Jan. in the following year. A staunch nonjuror and Jacobite, he was ordained deacon on 21 Sept. and priest on 23 Sept. 1716 by Bishop Jeremy Collier. He then began to devote himself to antiquarian pursuits, and in 1718–19 travelled over the midland and southern parts of England.

In July and August 1718 he visited, in company with Edmund Curll [q. v.], most, if not all, of the parishes in Oxfordshire, in order to begin collections for a proposed parochial history of the county, in which Wood's ‘History of the City of Oxford’ was to have been included. These collections remain among Rawlinson's manuscripts. From 11 June to November 1719 he travelled in France and the Low Countries, being enrolled in the register of the university of Utrecht on 21 Sept., and in that of Leyden on 28 Sept. While at Rouen he learnt that he had been created D.C.L. at Oxford on 19 June. In June 1720 he set out on another foreign tour. Six years were spent in Holland, France, Germany, Italy, Sicily, and Malta, in the course of which he was matriculated at Padua on 22 March 1722 (MS. Diary, p. 939). He records that he saw four popes, and a series of notebooks kept during his