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practices which were denounced as ritualistic, and on 27 Nov. 1869, at the instance of Colonel Charles James Elphinstone, he was charged before Sir Robert Phillimore [q. v.] in the arches court of Canterbury with infringing the law of the established church by using a cope (otherwise than during the communion service), chasubles, albs, stoles, tunicles, dalmatics, birettas, wafer bread, lighted candles on the altar, crucifixes, images, and holy water; by standing with his back to the people when consecrating the elements, mixing water with the wine, censing the minister, leaving the holy table uncovered during the service, directing processions round the church, and giving notice of unauthorised holidays. Purchas did not appear, stating that he was too poor to procure legal assistance, and too infirm in health to defend the case in person. On 3 Feb. 1870 judgment was given against him on eight points with costs (Law Reports, Admiralty and Ecclesiastical Courts, 1872, iii. 66–113). This decision was not entirely satisfactory to the promoter of the suit, and he appealed for a fuller condemnation of Purchas to the queen in council; but he died on 30 March 1870 before the case was heard. Henry Hebbert of Brighton, late a judge of the high court of judicature at Bombay, then applied to the privy council to be allowed to revive the appeal, and was permitted to take the place of the original promoter, 4 June 1870 (Law Reports, Privy Council Appeals, 1871, iii. 245–57). The privy council decided against Purchas on 16 May 1871, on practically all the points raised (ib. iii. 605–702). He, however, made over all his property to his wife, and neither paid the costs, amounting to 2,096l. 14s. 10d., nor discontinued any of the illegal practices. The privy council consequently, on 7 Feb. 1872, suspended him from the discharge of his clerical office for twelve months.

These decisions gave rise to much difference of opinion and led to a prolonged controversy, in which, among others, the Rev. Gordon Calthrop, the Rev. Robert Gregory, afterwards dean of St. Paul's, and Canon Liddon took part. A copy of the order of suspension was affixed to the door of St. James's Chapel on 18 Feb. 1872, but Purchas continued his services as usual for the remainder of his life. He died at his residence, Montpellier Villas, Brighton, on 18 Oct. 1872, and was buried in the parochial cemetery on 23 Oct. He left a widow and five sons.

He edited the ‘Directorium Anglicanum: being a Manual of Directions for the right Celebration of the Holy Communion, for the saying of Matins and Evensong, and for the performance of the other rites and ceremonies of the Church,’ 1858. This is a standard work on Anglican ritual.

His other writings were:

  1. ‘The Miser's Daughter, or the Lover's Curse,’ a comedy, 1839.
  2. ‘Ode upon the Death of the Marquis Camden,’ 1841.
  3. ‘The Birth of the Prince of Wales,’ a poem, 1842.
  4. ‘Poems and Ballads,’ 1846.
  5. ‘The Book of Feasts,’ 1853.
  6. ‘The Book of Common Prayer unabridged: a Letter to the Rev. J. Hildyard on his pamphlet, “The Morning Service of the Church abridged,”’ 1856.
  7. ‘The Priest's Dream: an Allegory,’ 1856.
  8. ‘The Death of Ezekiel's Wife: Three Sermons,’ 1866.

[Times, 19 Oct. 1872, p. 5; Annual Register, 1871, pp. 187–210; Sussex Daily News, 19 Oct. 1872 p. 5, 22 Oct. p. 6, 24 Oct. p. 5; Notes and Queries, 8th ser. x. 210; Men of the Time, 1872.]

G. C. B.

PURCHAS, SAMUEL (1575?–1626), author of the 'Pilgrimes,' son of George Purchas of Thaxted in Essex, was born about 1575. Having graduated from St. John's College, Cambridge, and taken holy orders, he was in 1601 curate of Purleigh in Essex. From 1604 to 1613 he was vicar of Eastwood in Essex; in 1614 he was appointed chaplain to George Abbot, archbishop of Canterbury, and from 1614 to 1626 he was rector of St. Martin's, Ludgate. He died in September or October 1626, aged 51. His will was proved on 21 Oct.

He married, in December 1601, Jane, daughter of Vincent Lease of Westhall, Suffolk, yeoman. In the marriage license, dated 2 Dec. 1601, Purchas is said to be twenty-seven, and he and his bride are described as household servants of Mr. Freake, parson of Purleigh. The ages as stated at marriage and death are not in exact agreement.

Purchas was the author of:

  1. ‘Purchas his Pilgrimage, or Relations of the World and the Religions observed in all Ages and Places discovered from the Creation unto this present’(fol. 1613; 2nd edit, 1614; 3rd edit. 1617; 4th edit. 1626).
  2. ‘Purchas his Pilgrim. Microcosmus, or the History of Man. Relating the Wonders of his Generation, Vanities in his Degeneration, Necessity of his Regeneration …’ (sm. 8vo, 1619).

But the work by which alone Purchas's name is now known is 3. ‘Hakluytus Posthumus, or Purchas his Pilgrimes, contayning a History of the World in Sea Voyages and Land-Trauells by Englishmen and others … ,’ with portrait on the title-page, ætat. 48 (4 vols. 4to, 1625; the fourth edition of the ‘Pilgrimage’ [No. 1 above], being exactly the same size, is frequently catalogued as the