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Page:Dictionary of National Biography volume 47.djvu/93

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plied to W. Jerdan's ‘Literary Gazette’ under the pseudonym of ‘Ephraim Hardcastle.’ In 1823 he republished these in two volumes, entitled ‘Wine and Walnuts, or After-dinner Chit-chat.’ Under the same pseudonym he edited, in 1824, ‘The Somerset House Gazette and Literary Museum: a Weekly Miscellany of Fine Arts, Antiquities, and Literary Chit-chat;’ fifty-two parts were published weekly at sixpence, when it was announced that it would be continued monthly, but no further part appeared. Pyne also contributed to ‘Arnold's Magazine of Fine Arts,’ the ‘Library of the Fine Arts,’ and an article on the ‘Greater and Lesser Stars of Pall Mall’ to ‘Fraser's Magazine.’ In 1825 he published a work of fiction, ‘The Twenty-ninth of May, or Rare Doings at the Restoration.’ Though long popular in literary and artistic circles, Pyne fell, in old age, into obscurity and neglect, and died on 29 May 1843, aged 74, in Pickering Place, Paddington, after a painful illness. One of his sons, George Pyne, married Esther, daughter of John Varley [q. v.], and also practised as an artist.

[Roget's Hist. of the ‘Old Watercolour’ Society; Gent. Mag. 1843, pt. ii. p. 99; Redgrave's Dict. of Artists; Pyne's own works.]

L. C.

PYNNAR, NICHOLAS (fl. 1619), surveyor, came to Ireland apparently in May 1600 as a captain of foot in the army sent to Lough Foyle under Sir Henry Docwra [q. v.] On 31 March 1604 his company was disbanded, and he himself assigned a pension of four shillings a day. In 1610 he offered as a servitor, not in pay, to take part in the plantation of Ulster, and in 1611 lands to the extent of one thousand acres were allotted him in co. Cavan. But he did not proceed with the enterprise, and on 28 Nov. 1618 he was appointed a commissioner ‘to survey and to make a return of the proceedings and performance of conditions of the undertakers, servitors, and natives planted’ in the six escheated counties of Armagh, Tyrone, Donegal, Cavan, Fermanagh, and Londonderry. He was engaged on this work from 1 Dec. 1618 to 28 March 1619. His report was first printed by Walter Harris (1686–1761) [q. v.] in his ‘Hibernica, or some Antient Pieces relating to the History of Ireland,’ in 1757, from a copy preserved among the bishop of Clogher's manuscripts in Trinity College, Dublin. It has been frequently referred to by subsequent writers, and was again printed by the Rev. George Hill in his ‘Plantation of Ulster.’ But there seems to be no particular reason why it should be called specifically ‘Pynnar's Survey,’ and its importance has been probably overestimated, for a fresh commission of survey was issued only three years later, the return to which, preserved in Sloane MS. 4756, is far more valuable for historical purposes. Pynnar prepared in 1624 some drawings of rivers, forts, and castles in Ireland, preserved in Addit. MS. 24200.

[Ware's Irish Writers, ed. Harris, p. 333; Cal. State Papers, Ireland, James I.]

R. D.

PYNSON, RICHARD (d. 1530), printer in London, was a Norman by birth, as we learn from his patent of naturalisation of 26 July 1513 (Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, vol. i. No. 4373). He is generally stated to have come to England during the life-time of Caxton, and to have learnt the art of printing from him as one of his apprentices; but, though he speaks of Caxton as ‘my worshipful master,’ there is little probability that he was ever in his employment. From his method of working it is clear that he learnt the art in Normandy, probably in the office of Guillaume le Talleur; and when William de Machlinia [q. v.], the principal printer of law books in London, gave up business about 1490, Pynson came over to succeed him, a position for which he was peculiarly fitted from his knowledge of Norman French. At first he employed the press of Le Talleur to print such books as he needed; but some time between 1490 and 1493 he began to print on his own account, issuing a Latin grammar and an illustrated edition of Chaucer's ‘Canterbury Tales.’ In 1493 he published Parker's ‘Dialogue of Dives and Pauper,’ his first dated book [see Parker, Henry, d. 1470], and in the colophon states that he was living ‘at the Temple-barre of London,’ though he shortly alters this to ‘dwelling without the Temple-barre.’ There he continued until the beginning of the sixteenth century, when he moved to the sign of the George in Fleet Street, continuing at that address until his death.

During the fifteenth century, though Pynson did not issue so many volumes as his rival, Wynkyn de Worde, his books are of a higher standard and better execution. In 1496 he issued an edition of ‘Terence,’ the first classic printed in London, and in 1500 the ‘Boke of Cookery’ and the ‘Morton Missal,’ the latter being the most beautiful volume printed up to that time in England. On the accession of Henry VIII to the throne Pynson seems to have been appointed printer to the king, and from this time onwards there are numerous entries in the state papers relating to him, which show that he was in receipt of an annuity.