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to make a special reservation (Chron. p. 175).

On 4 Oct. 1312 Sandale was reappointed treasurer, and on 28 Oct. was joined with Walter de Norwich and the bishop of Worcester to take fines for respite of knighthood (Cal. Pat. Rolls, Edward II, i. 501, 505). A little later he was sent to St. Alban's to receive delivery of the goods of Piers Gaveston (ib. i. 525, 553; Trokelowe, p. 79). On 26 Sept. 1314 he was appointed chancellor (Madox, Hist. Exch. i. 75, ii. 88). On 26 July 1316 he was elected bishop of Winchester; the royal assent was given on 5 Aug., and the temporalities restored on 23 Sept. (Le Neve, iii. 12). After his consecration by Archbishop Reynolds at Canterbury on 31 Oct. (Stubbs, Reg. Sacr. Angl. p. 51), Sandale went abroad, but on 6 Dec. the seal was restored to him at Southwark (Cal. Close Rolls, Edward II, ii. 439, 443). Except for some brief intervals when he was employed in his diocese and during a pilgrimage to Canterbury in February 1318, Sandale retained the seal till 9 June 1318 (ib. ii. 576, 592, 619). During the same year he was collector of the tenth from the clergy, and on 16 Nov. 1318 was reappointed treasurer. Sandale was present in the parliament at Leicester in April 1318, when he swore to observe the ordinances. On 24 Sept. he took part at St. Paul's on the process against Robert Bruce. In March 1319, as treasurer, he sat to hear a dispute between the mayor and aldermen of London (Chron. Edward I and Edward II, i. 283, 285, ii. 54). He died on 2 Nov. 1319 at Southwark, and was buried in the church of St. Mary Overy.

In the ‘Flores Historiarum’ (iii. 174), Sandale is described as ‘vir cunctis affabilis et necessarius communitati.’ He had property at Wheatley, near Doncaster, and in 1311 had license to crenellate his house there (Cal. Pat. Rolls, Edward II, i. 340; Cal. Inq. post mortem, i. 292). Edward I gave him the manor of Berghby, Lincolncolnshire, and Edward II a house in the suburbs of Lincoln (Abbrev. Rot. Orig. i. 165, 195, 197). He had also houses at Boston (Cal. Close Rolls, Edward II, ii. 321). Several members of the family who are mentioned—viz. Robert Sandale, John Sandale the younger, William Sandale, and Gilbert Sandale—were probably the bishop's nephews. Gilbert Sandale was prebendary of Auckland and lieutenant of John Sandale as treasurer (Reg. Pal. Dunelm. vol. ii. passim).

[Chronicles of Edward I and Edward II, Flores Historiarum, Murimuth's Chronicle, Registrum Palatinum Dunelmense, Letters from Northern Registers (all in Rolls Ser.); Cassan's Lives of Bishops of Winchester; Foss's Judges of England; Wharton, De Episcopis et Decanis Londinensibus, pp. 215–17; Le Neve's Fasti, ed. Hardy, passim; other authorities quoted.]

C. L. K.

SANDARS, THOMAS COLLETT (1825–1894), editor of ‘Justinian,’ eldest son of Samuel Sandars of Lochnere, near Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire, was born in 1825. He matriculated at Balliol College, Oxford, on 30 Nov. 1843, was a scholar from 1843 to 1849, graduated B.A. in 1848 (having taken first-class honours in literis humanioribus and the chancellor's Latin-verse prize), became fellow of Oriel in 1849, and proceeded M.A. in 1851. He was called to the bar in 1851, and was reader of constitutional law and history to the inns of court from 1865 to 1873. He was one of the earliest contributors to the ‘Saturday Review,’ and an intimate friend of James (afterwards Sir James) FitzJames Stephen [q. v.] He interested himself in commercial affairs in later years, and went twice to Egypt in 1877 and 1880 to represent the Association of Foreign Bondholders. He was also chairman of the Mexican Railway Company. He died on 2 Aug. 1894 at Queen Anne's Mansions; he had married, on 25 May 1851, Margaret, second daughter of William Hanmer of Bodnod Hall, Denbighshire, and left a family.

Sandars is remembered chiefly by his useful edition of Justinian's ‘Institutes,’ which first appeared in 1853; it reached an eighth edition in 1888.

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1715–1886; Oxford Honours Register; Times, 9 Aug. 1894; Leslie Stephen's Life of Sir James FitzJames Stephen, pp. 152, 178, 197; Foster's Men at the Bar.]

W. A. J. A.

SANDBY, PAUL (1725–1809), watercolour painter, engraver, and caricaturist, son of Thomas Sandby ‘of Babworth,’ and younger brother of Thomas Sandby [q. v.], was born at Nottingham in 1725. The brothers obtained appointments in the military drawing department at the Tower of London in 1741, and Paul was employed, after the suppression of the rebellion in 1745–6, to assist in the military survey of the new line of road to Fort George, and of the northern and western parts of the Highlands, under the direction of Colonel David Watson. He was afterwards appointed draughtsman to the survey, and his drawings presented to the board of ordnance, as specimens of his ability for the post, are now in the print-room of the British Museum. They include a sketch of the east view of Edinburgh Castle, with