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his brother, William Sandeman, as a linen manufacturer. From this business he withdrew in 1744, on being appointed an elder in the Glassite communion. He exercised his ministry successively at Perth, Dundee, and Edinburgh, and became widely known by his ‘Letters’ (1757) in criticism of the ‘Dialogues between Theron and Aspasio’ by James Hervey (1714–1758) [q. v.] This publication led to a controversy with Samuel Pike [q. v.], who ultimately became his disciple. In 1760 Sandeman removed to London, where he gathered a congregation at Glovers' Hall, Beech Lane, Barbican. It was soon transferred to a building, formerly the Friends' meeting-house, in Bull and Mouth Street, St. Martin's-le-Grand. His writings and preaching attracted attention. Among those who went to hear him was William Romaine [q. v.]

On the urgent invitation of his followers in New England, Sandeman sailed from Glasgow for Boston on 10 Aug. 1764, with James Cargill and Andrew Olifant. The first church of his connexion was founded at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, on 4 May 1765. He succeeded in planting other churches in New England, but the success of his mission was hindered by his warmth in urging the duty of loyalty to the mother country at a critical time in American politics. In March 1770 he was brought to trial by the authorities of Connecticut. He died at Danbury, Connecticut, on 2 April 1771. His interment there was the signal for a hostile display of political feeling.

Sandeman added nothing to the principles of theology and church polity adopted by Glas; but his advocacy gave them vogue, and the religious community which is still called Glassite in Scotland is recognised as Sandemanian in England and America.

He published: 1. ‘A Letter to Mr. W. Wilson … concerning Ruling Elders,’ 1736, 16mo. 2. ‘Letters on Theron and Aspasio,’ 1757, 2 vols. 8vo (often reprinted); a contribution to the controversy excited by the well-known ‘Dialogues’ of James Hervey [q. v.] 3. ‘An Epistolary Correspondence between … Pike and … Sandeman,’ 1758, 8vo; in Welsh, 1765, 12mo. 4. ‘An Essay on Preaching,’ 1763, 12mo. 5. ‘Some Thoughts on Christianity,’ Boston, New England, 1764, 12mo. Posthumous were: 6. ‘The Honour of Marriage,’ 1777, 8vo; Edinburgh, 1800, 12mo. 7. ‘An Essay on the Song of Solomon,’ 1803, 12mo. 8. ‘Letters,’ Dundee, 1851, 8vo. 9. ‘Discourses on Passages of Scripture: with Essays and Letters … with a Biographical Sketch,’ Dundee, 1857, 8vo. In ‘Christian Songs,’ Perth, 1847, 8vo, are nineteen pieces of religious verse by Sandeman, of no poetical merit.

[Wilson's Dissenting Churches of London, 1810, iii. 220, 274 sq. 364; Biography by D. M[itchelson] in Discourses, 1857 (portrait, wearing wig); Anderson's Scottish Nation, 1872, iii. 401; Thornton's Life of Sir Robert Sandeman, 1895, p. 2; authorities in art. on Glas.]

A. G.

SANDEMAN, Sir ROBERT GROVES (1835–1892), Indian officer and administrator, born on 25 Feb. 1835 at Perth, was son of General Robert Turnbull Sandeman of the East India Company's service, by his wife, whose maiden name was Barclay. The family was long connected with Perth, members of it having filled various municipal offices since 1735 [see Sandeman, Robert]. Robert was educated at Perth Academy and at St. Andrews University. In 1856 he was appointed to the 33rd Bengal infantry, his father's regiment, which, though disarmed at a time of supreme anxiety, remained faithful throughout the mutiny, and afterwards had its arms publicly restored. From it Sandeman was transferred to Probyn's Horse, now the 11th (Prince of Wales's Own) Bengal lancers, with whom he saw some service, taking part in storming Dilkhusha, in the capture of Lucknow, and other minor operations in which he was twice severely wounded. He was selected to carry despatches to Sir John Lawrence, who appointed him to the Punjab commission. He thus gained an opportunity of distinction of which he took full advantage.

To the performance of administrative and magisterial duties Sandeman brought patience and pertinacity curbed by much cautious sagacity. In 1866, as magistrate of Dera Ghází Khán, an arid and unattractive trans-Indus district of the Punjab, he used his utmost endeavours to obtain influence with the tribes within and beyond the border. He succeeded by irregular methods which were often viewed unfavourably by the chief officer of the Sind frontier, who had the control of the Baluch tribes. But Sandeman was supported by the Punjab government, whose opinions were ultimately adopted by the government of India. When the policy of non-intervention adopted by Lord Lawrence and his school was abandoned, Sandeman endeavoured, by securing the acquaintance and good-will of neighbouring chiefs, to strengthen the defences of the frontier. In 1876 he conducted negotiations which led to a treaty with the khan of Khalat. The value of his work was recognised at the Delhi assemblage, where, on 1 Jan. 1877, he was made C.S.I. On 21 Feb.