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presbyters must be esteemed lawful, seems to settle the question the other way. Further, if Saravia had been re-ordained, Morton, bishop of Durham, an intimate friend of Hooker, could not have written, as he did in 1620, that re-ordination under like circumstances ‘could not be done without very great offence to the reformed churches,’ and that ‘he did not choose to be the originator of such a scandal.’

Besides the treatises referred to above, Saravia published: 1. ‘De Honore Præsulibus et Presbyteris debito;’ an English version of this was published in 1629, 8vo. 2. ‘De Sacrilegis et Sacrilegorum pœnis.’ 3. ‘Responsio ad Convitia quædam Gretseri Jesuitæ, in quibus Hadriani Saraviæ nomine abutitur.’ 4. ‘N. fratri et Amico.’ 5. ‘De Imperandi Authoritate et Christiana Obedientia libri quatuor.’ These are included in a folio edition of his writings published at London in 1611, entitled ‘Diversi Tractatus Theologici.’

[Addit. MSS. 24488, ff. 222–4; Lansd. MS. 983, ff. 191–2; Works in Brit. Mus. Libr.; Burmann's Sylloge Epistolarum; Paquot's Histoire Littéraire des Pays-Bas, ii. 533–4; Meursii Athenæ Batavæ; Nouvelle Biographie Générale; Strype's Annals and Life of Whitgift; Walton's Life of Hooker; Gauden's Life of Hooker, ed. 1807, i. 80–9; Duncan's Guernsey; Notice by Denison prefixed to Treatise on Eucharist; Apostolical Succession, &c., by Cantab.; Wood's Athenæ Oxon. ii. 327, iii. 629, Fasti, i. 252–3; Foster's Alumni Oxon. 1500–1714; Simms's Bibl. Staffordiensis; Hasted's Kent, iv. 612–13, and ed. Drake, i. 269.]

G. W. S.


SARGANT, WILLIAM LUCAS (1809–1889), educational reformer and political economist, was born in 1809 at King's Norton, Worcestershire. His father was engaged in trade in Edmund Street and Whittall Street, Birmingham, as a maker of military arms and other equipments for the ‘African trade.’ Sargant was educated at the Hazlewood school, Edgbaston, which was conducted for many years by Thomas Wright Hill [q. v.], and subsequently by his sons (Sir) Rowland Hill [q. v.] and Matthew Davenport Hill [q. v.] He afterwards entered Trinity College, Cambridge, but left within two years to engage in his father's business. He took an active interest in local affairs in Birmingham, becoming a J.P. in 1849, serving on the town council, and as a governor of King Edward's School, Birmingham, where he ‘greatly aided in the reconstitution of the foundation on a more liberal basis of organisation and reconstruction.’ In all endeavours to improve elementary education he was especially prominent. In 1857 he associated himself with an educational prize scheme for aiding promising scholars at elementary schools, and in 1870 he helped to promote the National Association League, of which he became chairman. As a churchman he advocated religious teaching in elementary schools, and found himself bitterly opposed by an energetic minority of the members of the league; but he held his own in a long and severe struggle. In 1879 he retired from business, and he died at Birmingham on 2 Nov. 1889.

Sargant studied intelligently all political and economical questions, and brought to their examination the practical experience drawn from business. In his published writings those who agreed and those who disagreed with his views alike recognised his sagacity and fairness. His chief publications were: 1. ‘The Science of Social Opulence,’ 1856. 2. ‘Economy of the Labouring Classes,’ 1857. 3. ‘Social Innovators and their Schemes,’ 1858. 4. ‘Robert Owen and his Social Philosophy,’ 1860. 5. ‘Recent Political Economy,’ 1867. 6. ‘Apology for Sinking Funds,’ 1868. 7. ‘Essays by a Birmingham Manufacturer,’ 4 vols. 1869–72. 8. ‘Taxation Past, Present, and Future,’ 1874. 9. ‘Inductive Political Economy,’ vol. i. 1887. He made many contributions to the proceedings of the Statistical Society.

[Birmingham Post and Gazette; Works in Brit. Mus. Libr.; personal knowledge.]

S. T.


SARGENT, JOHN (1780–1833), divine, was the eldest son of John Sargent, M.P. for Seaford in 1790. The latter, who died in 1831, published in 1784 ‘The Mine’ and other poems; he married at Woollavington, Sussex, on 21 Dec. 1778, Charlotte (d. 1841), only daughter and heiress of Richard Bettsworth of Petworth, Sussex. The son John, born on 8 Oct. 1780, was educated at Eton, where he was a king's scholar, and in 1799 in the sixth form (Stapylton, Eton Lists, pp. 7–29). In 1799 he proceeded to King's College, Cambridge, where he was elected to a fellowship and graduated B.A. 1804, M.A. 1807. At Cambridge he fell under the influence of Charles Simeon [q. v.], and this friendship with Simeon shaped his career. He had been intended for the bar, but he was ordained deacon in 1805, and priest in 1806. On the presentation of his father he was instituted on 11 Sept. 1805 to the family living of Graffham in Sussex, and from 5 June 1813 he held with it a second family rectory, that of Woollavington. At Graffham he rebuilt the rectory-house, and on these benefices he resided for the rest of his days, becoming on his father's death the squire of