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deathbed among his people, holding the rajah's hand. At Madras there is a monument by Bacon, with a long eulogy, erected by the East India Company. With the exception of a bequest to his sister's family, Schwartz left his property—nearly a thousand pounds—to the mission, which had enjoyed most of his income while he lived. Amid almost universal corruption Schwartz's probity was unsullied to the last, and he evinced a rare indifference to power or wealth. ‘He was,’ as Heber wrote, ‘really one of the most active and fearless, as he was one of the most successful, missionaries since the Apostles.’ Heber estimates his converts at six thousand.

There is a fine oil painting of Schwartz at the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge house, and another identical in pose at the Missionary College, Leipzig. There is also a profile drawing at Halle. The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge house possesses his quarto Bible in two volumes; and a high-backed chair belonging to him is in the chapel.

[Memoirs of the Life and Correspondence of Christian Frederick Swartz, 1834, 3rd ed. 1839, by Hugh Nicholas Pearson [q. v.]; Dr. W. Germann's Missionar Christian Friedrich Schwartz, 1870.]

H. L. B.

SCHWARTZ, MARTIN (d. 1487), captain of mercenaries, was chosen leader of the band of two thousand Germans which Margaret, dowager duchess of Burgundy, sent over from the Low Countries to aid Lambert Simnel in 1487. The Earl of Lincoln joined the expedition before it started, and they landed in Ireland on 5 May 1487. On 24 May Lambert was duly crowned, and set out shortly afterwards to gain his kingdom. The little army which Schwartz commanded was joined by a number of Irish under Thomas Fitzgerald (not, as is sometimes stated, the Earl of Kildare). On 8 May Henry VII settled down to await them at Kenilworth. Schwartz and his friends landed in Lancashire, where they had adherents, and then began to march south. Henry moved towards him, and the two armies met at Stoke near Newark, where Simnel's army was routed, and Schwartz among others was slain (16 June 1487). Polydore Vergil calls him ‘homo Germanus, summo genere natus, ac rei bellicæ scientia præstans.’ André compares him to King Diomedes. Schwartz's name is preserved in various popular songs of the period. A reference to ‘Martin Swart and all his merry men’ occurs in Skelton's poem ‘Against a comely Coystrowne,’ and also in an interlude entitled ‘The longer thou livest the more fool thou art.’ Scott quoted some of these in ‘Kenilworth’ (ch. viii.; cf. Ritson, Ancient Songs, p. lxi; Weber, Flodden Field, pp. 65, 182).

[Busch's England under the Tudors (Engl. transl.), pp. 36–7; Vergil's Angl. Hist. ed. 1546, pp. 573–4; Gairdner's Henry VII (Twelve Engl. Statesmen), p. 53; Memorials of Henry VII, ed. Gairdner (Rolls Ser.), pp. 52, 143, 317; Letters &c. of Richard III and Henry VII, ed. Gairdner (Rolls Ser.), ii. 294.]

W. A. J. A.

SCHWEICKHARDT, HEINRICH WILHELM (1746–1797), landscape-painter, who is believed to have been of Dutch descent, was born in Brandenburg in 1746. He studied at The Hague under Girolamo Lapis, an Italian painter, and resided there until the end of 1786, when troubles arose in the Low Countries, and he left Holland and came to London. He gained a considerable reputation by his landscapes, especially the winter scenes, in which he introduced cattle and figures. He painted also sea-pieces and a few portraits, and made some excellent drawings in pen and ink, in bistre, and in chalk. He likewise etched some clever plates of animals. He exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1788 to 1796, and at the Society of Artists in 1790. Schweickhardt died in Belgrave Place, Pimlico, London, on 8 July 1797. He left a son, Leonardus Schweickhardt, who engraved several plates, as well as many maps, among which were those for Eckhoff's ‘Atlas of Friesland,’ published in 1850. He died at The Hague in January 1862, in his seventy-ninth year. Schweickhardt's daughter Katharina Wilhelmina, who possessed much talent as an artist, and still more as a poetess, became in 1797 the second wife of the Dutch poet Willem Bilderdijk. She was born at The Hague on 3 July 1777, and died at Haarlem on 16 April 1830.

[Edwards's Anecdotes of Painters, 1808, p. 241; Redgrave's Dict. of Artists of the English School, 1878; Bryan's Dict. of Painters and Engravers, ed. Graves and Armstrong, 1886–9, ii. 481; Royal Academy Exhibition Catalogues, 1788–96; Nagler's Neues allgemeines Künstler-Lexicon, xvi. 131; Van der Aa's Biographisch Woordenboek der Nederlanden, 1852–78, xvii. 573; Immerzeel's Levens en Werken der Hollandsche en Vlaamsche Kunstschilders, &c., 1842–3; Kramm's Levens en Werken der Hollandsche en Vlaamsche Kunstschilders, &c., 1857–64.]

R. E. G.

SCLATER, EDWARD (1623–1699?), divine, descended from a family seated at Slaughter in Gloucestershire, was son of Edward Sclater, probably a merchant tailor