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for its description of the vitrified fort of Dun MacUisneachan, and its recognition, in anticipation of William Forbes Skene [q. v.] in his ‘Celtic Scotland,’ of the extremely early and close connection between the populations of western Scotland and north-east Ireland (Professor Boyd Dawkins).

In 1880 Smith proposed to measure the ‘actinism of the sun's rays’ by their effect on a dilute acid solution of potassium iodide, from which they liberate an amount of iodine that is approximately proportional to the intensity of the light and length of exposure. This method, originally invented by Dr. Albert R. Leeds, though independently discovered by Smith, is of considerable practical value, and was employed by the Manchester air analysis committee in 1891–2 (Proceedings of the Manchester Field Naturalists' Society, 1892, p. 87). In 1883, at the request of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, Smith published, under the title ‘A Centenary of Science in Manchester,’ an interesting sketch of the history of the society (not altogether accurate in detail), with notices of many of its members. Smith and Mr. Robert Rawlinson, C.B., had been appointed the first inspectors under the Rivers Pollution Act of 1876; Smith wrote two official reports in this capacity, in 1882 and in 1884 (published posthumously). In the latter report he showed incidentally that under certain conditions the fermentation of sugar by the microbes found in water produces hydrogen, of which the amount evolved varies, cæteris paribus, with the water; and he made one of the first applications of Dr. Robert Koch's ‘gelatine’ method for determining the number of microbes in water. He also invented a process for lining iron waterpipes with an impermeable varnish which is widely used (Rivers Pollution Commission, 6th Rep. (1874), p. 221). He was made an honorary LL.D. of Glasgow in 1881, and of Edinburgh in 1882. In spite of declining health during the last few years of his life, Smith retained almost to the last his active habits of work. He died on 12 May 1884 at Colwyn Bay, North Wales, and was buried in the churchyard of St. Paul's, Kersal, Manchester. He was unmarried; his niece, Miss Jessie Knox-Smith, had for some years previous to his death lived with him and helped him with his literary work.

It is scarcely an exaggeration to say that, ‘as the chemist of sanitary science, Smith worked alone’ (Thorpe); but the work of which he was the pioneer in this country is now being largely developed in many directions. He was of so unruffled a temper that he was called by his friends ‘Agnus,’ and was of an exceptionally kindly, winning, and generous disposition.

A bronze bust of Smith was sculptured in 1886 by T. Nelson Maclean, and presented to the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society by his friend Dr. Schunck; and another bust by Brodie belonged to another friend, James Young. A bust of him is also in the library of the Owens College. His countenance was of the pure Gaelic type.

The ‘Royal Society's Catalogue’ gives a list of forty-eight papers by Smith; in addition to these and the books mentioned above, he published anonymously various articles in Ure's ‘Dictionary’ and the ‘Chemical News,’ and many articles on antiquarian subjects. His library, which was rich in works on chemistry and on Celtic literature, was bought by the ‘Angus Smith Memorial Committee’ and presented to the Owens College, Manchester, after his death.

[Besides the sources quoted, Smith's own works; Obituaries in Manchester Lit. and Phil. Soc. Proceedings, xxiv. 97, and Memoirs [3] x. 90, by Dr. Edward Schunck, F.R.S.; Nature, xxx. 104, by T. E. Thorpe; Manchester Guardian; Manchester Courier and Manchester Examiner for 13 May 1884; Chemical Soc. Journal, xlvii. 335; Chemical News, xl. 222, 1. 200; Ber. der deutschen Chem. Gesellschaft, by A. W. Hofmann, xvii. 1211; W. Anderson Smith's ‘Shepherd’ Smith, passim; Thompson's Owens College, pp. 232–3; Biograph and Review, v. 142; G. Seton's St. Kilda, p. 334; Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon-general's Office, U.S.A. xiii. 217; Brit. Mus. Cat.; Roscoe and Harden's New View of Dalton's Atomic Theory; Dr. J. C. Thresh's Water … Supplies, pp. 20, 207; Report on the Progress … of Manufacturing Chemistry … in South Lancashire, by E. Schunck, R. Angus Smith, and H. E. Roscoe, Brit. Assoc. Report, 1861, p. 108; private information from Professor Boyd Dawkins, A. E. Fletcher, esq. (late chief inspector under the Alkali Act), R. F. Gwyther, esq., Professor Strachan, and Dr. Edward Schunck, Frank Scudder, esq. (for many years Smith's assistant).]

P. J. H.

SMITH, ROBERT ARCHIBALD (1780–1829), musical composer, son of Robert Smith, silk-weaver, was born at Reading on 16 Nov. 1780. His father, a native of East Kilbride, Lanarkshire, had been a silk-weaver in Paisley, whence dull business sent him to Reading. Here he married Ann Whitcher, who succeeded to a small property and the interest of a little money, which was invested for her son after her death. Ignoring Robert's precocious musical talent, his father apprenticed him to silk-weaving. He early joined a church choir in Reading, and played on