is at Badminton, and a copy among the Carte MSS. (cxxix. fol. 349) in the Bodleian library. Owing, however, to the partial success of the royalist arms during 1644, and to Charles's absorption in other schemes, the execution of Glamorgan's commission was delayed. There was, moreover, some hope that Ormonde, the royalist lord-lieutenant, might be able to conclude a treaty with the Irish rebels himself.
On 14 Nov. 1644, however, Ormonde, a firm protestant, disgusted with the concessions he was expected to make to the Roman catholics, asked to be relieved of the lord-lieutenancy. Charles, instead of acceding to this request, despatched Glamorgan to aid Ormonde in the negotiations and relieve him of disagreeable details. In his instructions, dated 2 Jan. 1644–5, Charles declared that as it was necessary to conclude a peace suddenly, he would die a thousand deaths rather than break or disannul ‘whatsoever shall be consented unto by our lieutenant the Marquis of Ormond;’ ‘and if upon necessity anything be to be condiscended unto, and yet the lord marquis not willing to be seen therein, or not fit for us at the present publicly to own, do you endeavour to supply the same.’ Glamorgan received further commissions on 6 and 12 Jan. and on 12 March. The last, which was afterwards the basis of the Glamorgan treaty, authorised him to treat with the confederate Roman catholics in Ireland, and promised to ratify any concessions he might make. Glamorgan interpreted these commissions as authorising him to make any terms he pleased with the confederates without consulting any one, and as such they were interpreted by the papal nuncio and the confederates (Rinucchini, Embassy, pp. 95–6, 103). Charles, however, subsequently maintained that the commissions were to be read with the instructions of 2 Jan., and that Glamorgan was empowered to act only with Ormonde's advice, and to conclude nothing without his authority.
Glamorgan sailed from Carnarvon on 25 March 1645, but was driven by storm on to the Lancashire coast, and took refuge in Skipton Castle, where he remained three months. The reason for this delay was probably that Ormonde had retained the lord-lieutenancy of Ireland, and was continuing his negotiations. In May, however, it became evident that these would fail, and the battle of Naseby (14 June) rendered Charles's position hopeless without external aid. Glamorgan was in consequence hurried to Ireland, starting before 23 June. He was in Dublin during July, and thence set out for Kilkenny, the headquarters of the confederates. There, on 25 Aug., was signed the secret Glamorgan treaty, by which the Roman catholics were granted possession of all the churches they had seized since 23 Oct. 1641, and exemption from the jurisdiction of the protestant clergy (Gilbert, Confederation and War, v. 67–75). In return they promised a force of ten thousand men for England under Glamorgan, who was bound by oath not to lead them into any engagement before the king ratified these terms. At the same time Glamorgan drew up what he called a ‘defeasance,’ declaring that he had no intention of binding the king to any concession ‘other than he himself shall please after he hath received the ten thousand men.’ On 12 Nov. the new nuncio, Giovanni Battista Rinuccini [q. v.], arrived at Kilkenny, and in his hands Glamorgan became as wax. His zeal for the church outran his devotion to the king, and he became anxious to purchase Irish support at any price. On 20 Dec. he signed with Rinuccini what has been called the second Glamorgan treaty. By it Charles was to bind himself never to appoint a protestant lord-lieutenant, to admit Roman catholic bishops to take their seats in the Irish parliament, and to sanction the establishment of a Roman catholic university in Ireland. In return Glamorgan was to receive an advance guard of three thousand Irish to start for the relief of Chester without waiting for the conclusion of the negotiations still proceeding between Ormonde and the confederates. In order to secure Ormonde's consent to his appointment as commander of this force, Glamorgan set out for Dublin, which he reached on 24 Dec.
Meanwhile a copy of the first Glamorgan treaty had been discovered in the baggage of Malachias Quælly [q. v.], archbishop of Tuam, who was killed in an encounter with Sir Charles Coote (afterwards Earl of Mountrath) [q. v.] on 17 Oct. (or 26 Oct. new style). The news of the treaty came as a thunderbolt to the loyalists in Dublin, who at once assumed that Glamorgan had forged his commissions. At Digby's instigation Ormonde ordered Glamorgan's arrest on 26 Dec. On the following day (5 Jan. 1645–6 N.S.), during his examination before the Irish privy council, he maintained that he had done nothing for which he had not the king's warrant. The council remanded him to the castle, and referred the subject to Charles. News of the treaty reached the English parliament on 16 Jan., with the result that some independents at once started a movement for Charles's deposition. On the 29th the king disavowed the treaty; to parliament he declared that he had given Glamorgan no commission to treat of anything without Ormonde's privity; to