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machine is identical with that suggested in the ‘Century,’ No. 68, where an admirable and most forcible instrument of propulsion is described, and is credited with the power of ‘driving up water by fire.’ The idea is said to have occurred to him while watching in the Tower the lid of a saucepan rising from the pressure of steam from boiling water; but the supposed identity of the two ‘inventions’ is ‘pure and unwarranted hypothesis’ (Galloway, The Steam-Engine and its Inventors, 1881, p. 57), and there is no conclusive evidence to prove that Worcester ever constructed a steam-engine like that suggested in No. 68 of his ‘Century.’

Worcester died, probably at Lambeth, on 3 April 1667, and was buried in Raglan parish church on the 19th. Portraits of him by Vandyck and Hanneman, belonging to the Duke of Beaufort, are engraved in Dircks's ‘Life’ (cf. Bromley). He married, first, in 1628, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir William Dormer; she died on 31 May 1635, and was buried in Raglan church. Her portrait, painted by Vandyck, is engraved in Dircks's ‘Life,’ p. 16. By her he had one son, Henry, first duke of Beaufort [q. v.], and two daughters: Anne, who married Henry Howard, sixth duke of Norfolk [q. v.], and Elizabeth, who married William Herbert, first marquis and titular duke of Powis [q. v.] His second wife was Margaret, daughter of Henry O'Brien, fifth earl of Thomond [see under O'Brien, Barnabas, sixth Earl of Thomond]. By her, who died 26 July 1681, he had issue one daughter, Mary, who died an infant.

[The Life, Times, and Scientific Labours of the second Marquis of Worcester, by Henry Dircks, civil engineer, 1865, is an elaborate but not quite successful attempt to justify Worcester's proceedings in Ireland, and to establish his claim as founder of the steam-engine. Its chronology is vitiated by a neglect of the distinction between the old and new styles of dating. It was supplemented by Worcesteriana, a Collection of Literary Authorities, &c., 1866, being a bibliography of 260 pages. Worcester's own statement of his services, put in the form of a speech in the House of Lords, is printed in Eliot Warburton's Prince Rupert, vol. iii., App. pp. 515–31. An enormous mass of unpublished materials relating to the Glamorgan treaty is contained in the Carte MSS. in the Bodleian Library, and this part of Worcester's career is believed to have suggested some of the episodes in Mr. J. H. Shorthouse's ‘John Inglesant.’ The account in the text is based mainly on Dr. S. R. Gardiner's articles in the Engl. Hist. Rev. ii. 687–708, iii. 125; see also on this subject Gardiner's Civil War; Gilbert's Hist. of the Confederation and War in Ireland, 7 vols; Gilbert's Cont. Hist. of Affairs, 6 vols.; Embassy of Rinuccini, transl. Hutton; Carte's Original Letters, 2 vols.; Carte's Life of Ormonde, 6 vols.; Birch's Inquiry into … the Transactions of the Earl of Glamorgan, 1747; Clarendon State Papers; Charles I in 1646 (Camden Soc.); Nalson's, Rushworth's, and Thurloe's Collections; Cox's Hibernia Anglicana; Husband's Coll. of Ordinances, 1646; and compare arts. Charles I; Butler, James, first Duke of Ormonde; Rinucchini, Giovanni Battista. For Worcester's inventions, compare arts. Morland, Sir Samuel; Newcomen, Thomas; Papin, Denis; and Savery, Thomas. See also Lords' and Commons' Journals; Cal. State Papers, Dom.; Burton's Diary, ed. Rutt; Warburton's Rupert, 3 vols.; Phillips's Civil War in Wales; Webb's Civil War in Herefordshire; Walpole's Royal and Noble Authors; Hume's Hist. of England; Macaulay's Hist. of England, i. 182; Dugdale's, Collins's, Courthope's, and G. E. C.'s Peerages; Aubrey's Surrey; Manning and Bray's Surrey; J. F. Marsh's Annals of Chepstow Castle, ed. Maclean; Washbourne's Bibl. Gloucestrensis; Lady Theresa Lewis's Contemporaries of Clarendon, iii. 168.]

A. F. P.

SOMERSET, Lord EDWARD (1776–1842), general. [See Somerset, Lord Robert Edward Henry.]

SOMERSET, Lord FITZROY JAMES HENRY, first Baron Raglan (1788–1855), field-marshal, was youngest son of Henry, fifth duke of Beaufort, by Elizabeth, daughter of Admiral the Hon. Edward Boscawen [q. v.] Lord Robert Edward Henry Somerset [q. v.] was an elder brother. He was born at Badminton on 30 Sept. 1788, and was educated at Westminster. He was commissioned as cornet in the 4th light dragoons on 9 June 1804, and became lieutenant on 30 May 1805. In 1807 he accompanied the mission of Sir Arthur Paget to Constantinople. He obtained a company in the 6th garrison battalion on 5 May 1808, and on 18 Aug. was transferred to the 43rd foot. He went to Portugal with Wellesley as aide-de-camp, and was present at Roliça and Vimeiro. On 27 Aug. Wellesley wrote: ‘Lord Fitzroy has been very useful to me, and I have this day lent him to Sir H. Dalrymple to go to the French headquarters.’

He went home with Wellesley, but returned to the Peninsula with him in the spring of 1809, and served on his staff continuously till the close of the war. He was bearer of the despatches after Talavera, and was wounded at Busaco. He was appointed military secretary to Wellesley on 1 Jan. 1811, and in this position he established direct relations with the battalion commanders, by means of which he acquired ‘an exact knowledge of the moral state of each regiment,