SOUTHWELL verè Bacon, THOMAS (1592–1637), jesuit, son of Thomas Bacon and Elizabeth his wife, and elder brother of Nathanael Southwell [q. v.], was born at Sculthorpe, near Walsingham, Norfolk, in 1592. He studied at Lynn in his native county, and afterwards made his humanity course in the college of the English jesuits at St. Omer. He was admitted a student of the English College at Rome on 10 Nov. 1610, entered the Society of Jesus in July 1613, and was professed of the four vows on 19 April 1626. For eight years he was professor of theology in the college of his order at Liège, and he was once vice-rector of that college. Sir Tobie Matthew [q. v.], writing from abroad to Francis Bacon as Viscount St. Albans, after January 1621, said: ‘The most prodigious wit that ever I knew of any nation and of this side of the sea is of your lordship's name, though he be known by another.’ In all probability Matthew was referring to Southwell. The quotation has been tortured into an assertion that Francis Bacon was writing works under the name of another, who has been absurdly identified with Shakespeare. Southwell died at Watten on 11 Dec. 1637.
His works are:
- ‘Vindiciæ pro Nicolao Smitheo,’ Liège, 1631.
- ‘Regula viva seu Analysis Fidei in Deo per Ecclesiam nos docentis auctoritatem,’ Antwerp, 1638, 4to. De Backer's statement that this work was translated into Flemish by Father James de Villegas is incorrect.
- ‘Quæstio sexagesima S. Thomæ de Sacramento in genere,’ a manuscript in the library of the university of Liège.
- A treatise on ‘The First Part of the Sum of St. Thomas Aquinas;’ this was prepared for the press, but never published.
[De Backer's Bibl. des Ecrivains de la Compagnie de Jésus (1876) iii. 880, (1890) i. 755; Dodd's Church Hist. iii. 312; Florus Anglo-Bavaricus, pp. 33, 50; Foley's Records, v. 520, vi. 259, 284, vii. 27; Oliver's Jesuit Collections, p. 195; Southwell's Bibl. Scriptorum Soc. Jesu, p. 759.]
SOUTHWELL, THOMAS, first Baron Southwell (1667–1720), was the eldest son of Richard Southwell of Callow, by his wife Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Murrough O'Brien, first earl of Inchiquin [q. v.], and grandson of Sir Thomas Southwell of Castle Matras, who, by patent dated 4 Aug. 1662, in consideration of his loyal affection and merits, was created a baronet by Charles II. The first baronet outlived his only son Richard, and, dying in May 1681, was buried at Rathkeale, co. Limerick.
On succeeding to the baronetcy in 1681 Southwell took a prominent place among the protestant gentry of Munster. The rule of Tyrconnel during 1687–8 was in the last degree distasteful to him, and he freely risked his life to prevent a recurrence of it. When in February 1688–9 Moyallon surrendered to James, he set out with a party of a hundred men, including his brother William, resolved to effect a junction with Lord Kingston at Sligo, and there to prepare a common defence. On the way they had several skirmishes with the enemy, who occupied the country in force, but without much loss, until the sheriff of Galway, James Power, by means of a number of false guides, succeeded in entrapping them in a narrow pass, where they were surrounded and forced to surrender. That night they were conveyed to Loughrea, and next day, 10 March 1688–9, they were delivered to the sheriff's custody, and confined in the county court-house at Galway. The security of their lives and persons had been promised them upon surrender, and when put upon their trial before Judge Martin on 16 March, they were prevailed upon to submit themselves to James's lenity. Next day, however, they were all sentenced to be hanged, drawn, and quartered, as guilty of high treason. Ultimately, after several reprieves, upon the intercession of the Earl of Seaforth, Southwell was released on 2 Jan. 1690, and at once proceeded to England. His influence and that of his friends helped to secure reprieves for his comrades, who were not finally released until William's victory at the Boyne on 1 July 1690. In April 1693 Southwell received a commission to inspect and receive arrears due on crown lands in Ireland, and on 16 June 1697 he was made one of the four commissioners of revenue in Ireland, a post to which he was reappointed in 1702, and which he retained until 1712. On 12 Feb. 1700 he was further made a trustee for the erection of barracks in Ireland. In May 1710 he was made a member of the Irish privy council, and on 9 Oct. 1714 reappointed a commissioner of revenue.