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and French, and having some knowledge of oriental languages. He was a voluminous writer. His chief publications were: 1. 'The Essay towards a Proposal for Catholick Communion, &c., answered Chapter by Chapter' [against reconciliation of the church of England with the church of Rome, proposed by Mr. Bassett], 1705. 2. 'The New Pretenders to Prophecy re-examined, and their Pretences shown to be Groundless and False,' 1705. 3. 'Mr. Hoadly's Measures of Submission to the Civil Magistrates enquired into and disproved,' pt. i. 1711; pt. ii. 1712. 4. 'The Sick Man visited, and furnished with Instructions, Meditations, and Prayers,' 1st ed. 1712; 2nd ed. 1718; 3rd ed. 1722; 4th ed. 1731. 5. 'The Case truly stated; wherein "The Case re-stated" is fully considered 7 [that is, the case between the church of Rome and the church of England]. 'By a Member of the Church of England,' 1714. 6. 'A Collection of Meditations and Devotions in Three Parts,' 1717. 7. 'The Case farther stated between the Church of Rome and the Church of England, wherein the Chief Point about the Supremacy is fully discussed in a Dialogue between a Roman Catholic and a member of the Church of England,' 1718. 8. 'No Sufficient Reason for Restoring the Prayers and Directions of King Edward VI's First Liturgy,' 2 parts, 1718. 9. 'No Just Grounds for introducing the New Communion Office, or denying Communion to those who cannot think themselves at liberty to reject the Liturgy of the Church of England for its sake. In answer to a late Appendix and to Dr. Brett's Postscript,' 1719. 10. 'The Article of Romish Transubstantiation inquired into and disproved from Sense, Scripture, Antiquity, and Reason,' 1719. 11. 'The Church of England Man's Companion in the Closet, with a Preface by N. Spinckes,' 1721; a manual of private devotions collected, probably by Spinckes himself, from the writings of Laud, Andrewes, Ken, Hickes, Kettlewell, and Spinckes, which reached a fifteenth edition in 1772, and was republished in 1841.

Besides these works, Spinckes wrote a preface to his friend Hickes's 'Sermons on Several Subjects,' 2 vols. published in 1713, aad also published a volume of posthumous discourses by Hickes, with a preface, in 1726. He is said to have assisted in the publication of Grabe's Septuagint, of Newcourt's 'Repertorium,' of Howell's 'Canons,' of Potter's 'Clemens Alexandrinus,' and of Walker's 'Sufferings of the Clergy.'

[Life of Spinckes by John Blackbourne; Life prefixed to The Sick Man visited; Life prefixed to Church of England-Man's Companion in the Closet, by F. Paget; Spinckes's Works, passim; Hickes's Works, passim; Lathbury's History of the Nonjurors; Kettlewell's Life by Francis Lee, &c.; Kettlewell's Life, &c., by author of Nicholas Ferrar (1895); Hearne's Collections, ed. Doble (Oxf. Hist. Soc.)]

J. H. O.

SPITTLEHOUSE, JOHN (fl. 1653), pamphleteer, fought for the parliament against the king at Gainsborough and at the siege of Newark (1644), remaining in the army till after the battle of Worcester (1651) (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1654, p. 62). When Cromwell dissolved the Long parliament (20 April 1653), Spittlehouse published several pamphlets in defence of that action, and urged that Cromwell should imitate Moses in appointing governors for the people. On 5 Dec. 1653 the sergeant-at-arms was ordered to apprehend him and bring him before council to answer for certain petitions presented by him to council and parliament (ib. 1653–4, pp. 272, 294, 446). He was released by order of council on 6 April 1654, but his arrest was again directed on 19 Oct. for publishing an abusive answer to Cromwell's speech of 4 Sept. 1654 (ib. 1654, pp. 378, 434). His release, on giving a bond to the extent of 200l. to live peaceably, was voted on 1 Feb. 1656 (ib. 1655–6, p. 155). The date of his death is not known.

Spittlehouse was the author of: 1. ‘The Army Vindicated in their late Dissolution of the Parliament,’ 1653, 4to. 2. ‘A Warning Piece Discharged,’ 1653 (on these two tracts see Gardiner's Commonwealth and Protectorate, ii. 223). 3. ‘An Answer to one Part of the Lord Protector's Speech, or a Vindication of the Fifth-Monarchy Men,’ 1654. 4. ‘The Picture of a New Courtier, drawn in a Conference between Mr. Plainheart and Mr. Timeserver,’ 1656.

[Authorities mentioned in the article.]

C. H. F.

SPODE, JOSIAH (1754–1827), potter, was born at Stoke-upon-Trent in 1754. His father, Josiah Spode (1733–1797), worked as a potter with Thomas Whieldon from 1749 to 1754, when he commenced manufacturing on his own account. The younger Josiah learnt the trade in his father's workshops, and is said to have introduced transfer printing into Stoke. He specially favoured the blue-printed ware, particularly the willow pattern, and much improved the jasper, cream, and black Egyptian ware. Spode's ware was soon made generally known through the agency of William Copeland, a traveller in the tea trade, who undertook to sell it to his customers on commission. The demand grew so rapidly that Spode, with Copeland's co-