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other artificial manures. He suffered greatly throughout life from deafness, which at last necessitated his retirement in great measure from active life. He died of paralysis on 3 May 1885 at his residence at Eling.

Spooner was an excellent judge of horses, and was frequently seen in the ‘ring’ at agricultural shows. He was most widely known for his work on ‘Sheep.’ He wrote: 1. ‘A Treatise on the Influenza of Horses,’ 1837, in great part a compilation giving ‘the experience of many eminent veterinary surgeons,’ including Professor Sewell, Youatt, and Charles Spooner. 2. ‘A Treatise on the Structure, Functions, and Diseases of the Foot and Leg of the Horse,’ 1840, which has been erroneously attributed to Professor Charles Spooner. 3. ‘The History, Structure, Economy, and Diseases of the Sheep,’ 1844, a standard work of which a new (third) edition, ‘considerably enlarged,’ appeared thirty years later. The work was undertaken largely owing to Youatt's recommendation, aiming at more condensed and practical treatment than had been the case in Youatt's own treatise on sheep, issued seven years previously in the ‘Library of Useful Knowledge.’ 4. ‘A Treatise on Manures,’ 1847. For the ‘Encyclopædia Metropolitana,’ at the instance of Professor Sewell, Spooner wrote an article on ‘Veterinary Art,’ which was subsequently issued as a separate treatise. Spooner also contributed to Morton's ‘Encyclopædia of Agriculture,’ which was published between 1848 and 1853 [see Morton, John, (1781–1864)]. He edited and in part rewrote, in 1842, White's two treatises, ‘A Compendium of Cattle Medicine’ and ‘A Compendium of the Veterinary Art.’ Among his minor contributions, which cover a wide range of agricultural topics, may be mentioned papers on ‘Cross-breeding in Sheep and Horses,’ ‘The Capabilities of the New Forest,’ ‘The Failure of the Turnip Crop,’ &c.

[Private information from Professor J. B. Simonds; Veterinary Medical Association Proceedings, passim; Obituaries in Agricultural Gazette, 11 May 1885, pp. 597–8 (with portrait); Veterinarian, lviii. 448 (June 1885); Veterinary Journal, 1885, xx. 461; Mark Lane Express, 1885, i. 584; Bell's Weekly Messenger, 11 May 1885 p. 5, 18 May p. 5; Live Stock Journal, 8 May 1885; Works.]

E. C.-e.

SPORLEY or SPORTE, RICHARD (d. 1490?), historian, became a monk of Westminster about 1430. He wrote a collection of annals, of which extracts have been preserved in a sixteenth-century copy made by J. Jocelin (Cotton MS. Vit. E. xiv, 260; also in Harl. 692, f. 198). The entries run from 1043 to 1483. He wrote also a history of Westminster from its foundation, for which he used Sulcard [q. v.] and other old authorities. He carries his collection of charters to the reign of John. The manuscript containing this work also supplies another on the abbots and priors of Westminster, which appears to be an enlargement of the work of Prior John Flete [q. v.]; it ends in 1386 (Cotton. MS. Claud. A. viii. f. 16; cf. Flete's MS. in Westminster Chapter library).

[Dart, Widmore, and Dugdale all cite from the Cotton. MS. Claud. A. viii. in their histories of Westminster.]

M. B.

SPOTTISWOOD or SPOTSWOOD, ALEXANDER (1676–1740), colonial governor, born at Tangier in 1676, was the only son of Robert Spotswood and his wife Catherine Elliott. His father was physician to the governor and garrison of Tangier, and third son of Sir Robert Spottiswood [q. v.], secretary for Scotland. Alexander became an ensign in the Earl of Bath's regiment of foot on 20 May 1693, obtained a lieutenancy on 1 Jan. 1696, and rose to be captain before 1704. He was wounded at Blenheim, and obtained a lieutenant-colonel's commission. In 1710 he was appointed lieutenant-governor of Virginia under the nominal governor, George Hamilton, first earl of Orkney [q. v.] He showed himself a conspicuously energetic administrator, labouring for the good of the colony in divers ways. He rebuilt the college of William and Mary, and took measures for the conversion and instruction of Indian children. He was the first to explore the Appalachian mountains in 1716. He dealt resolutely with the enemies of the colony, capturing and putting to death the famous pirate Edward Teach [q. v.], and holding in check the Indians on the frontier. In 1722 he held a conference with the five nations, and by his diplomacy the Tuscaroras, who were threatening the Carolinas, were disappointed of support.

As was usual with the colonial assemblies, the legislature of Virginia were backward in finding funds for the governor's undertakings against the Indians, and disputes resulted. Spotswood also in 1719 entangled himself in a difficulty with the crown as to the right of presentation to benefices in Virginia. This led to his supersession in 1722. He continued to live in the colony, holding a large landed estate on the Rapidan river in the county of Spotsylvania, where, about 1716, he founded the town of Germanna, carried on extensive ironworks, and cultivated vines. In 1730 he was appointed deputy postmaster for the colonies. In 1740 he re-