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ARNIM–BOYTZENBURG—ARNO

Göttingen, and published one or two essays on scientific subjects; but his bent was from the first towards literature. From the earlier writings of Goethe and Herder he learned to appreciate the beauties of German traditional legends and folk-songs; and, forming a collection of these, published the result (1806-1808), in collaboration with Klemens Brentano (q.v.) under the title Des Knaben Wunderhorn. From 1810 onward he lived with his wife Bettina, Brentano’s sister, alternately at Berlin and on his estate at Wiepersdorf, near Dahme in Brandenburg, where he died on the 21st of January 1831. Arnim was a prolific and versatile writer, gifted with a sense of humour and a refined imagination—qualities shown in the best-known of his works, Des Knaben Wunderhorn, deficient as this is in the philological accuracy and faithfulness to original sources which would now be expected of such a compilation. In general, however, his writings, full as they are of the exaggerated sentiment and affectations of the romantic school, make but little appeal to modern taste. There are possible exceptions, such as the short stories Fürst Ganzgott und Sänger Halbgott and Der tolle Invalide auf dem Fort Ratonneau and the unfinished romance Die Kronenwächter (1817), which promised to develop into one of the finest historical romances of the 19th century. Among Arnim’s other works may be mentioned Hollins Liebesleben (1802), Der Wintergarten (1809), a collection of tales; Armut, Reichtum Schuld, und Busse der Gräfin Dolores (1810), a novel; Halle und Jerusalem (1811), a dramatic romance; and one or two smaller novels, such as Isabella von Ägypten (1812).

Arnim’s Sämtliche Werke were edited by his widow and published in Berlin in 1839-1840; second edition in 22 vols., 1853-1856. Selections have been edited by J. Dohmke (1892); M. Koch, Arnim, Klemens und Bettina Brentano, Görres (1893). Des Knaben Wunderhorn has been frequently republished, the best edition being that of A. Birlinger and W. Crecelius (2 vols., 1872-1876). See R. Steig, Achim von Arnim und Klemens Brentano (1894).

ARNIM-BOYTZENBURG, HANS GEORG VON (1581-1641), German general and diplomatist, was born in 1581 at Boytzenburg in Brandenburg. From 1613 to 1617 he served in the Swedish army under Gustavus Adolphus, took part in the Russian War, and afterwards fought against the Turks in the service of the king of Poland. In 1626, though a Protestant, he was induced by Wallenstein to join the new imperial army, in which he quickly rose to the rank of field marshal, and won the esteem of his soldiers as well as that of his commander, whose close friend and faithful ally he became. This attachment to Wallenstein, and a spirit of religious toleration, were the leading motives of a strange career of military and political inconstancy. Thus the dismissal of Wallenstein and the perilous condition of German Protestantism after the edict of Restitution combined to induce Arnim to quit the imperial service for that of the elector of Saxony. He had served under Gustavus many years before, and later he had defeated him in the field, when in command of a Polish army; the fortune of war now placed Arnim at the head of the Saxon army which fought by the side of the Swedes at Breitenfeld (1631), and indeed the alliance of these two Protestant powers in the cause of their common religion was largely his work. The reappearances of Wallenstein, however, caused him to hesitate and open negotiations, though he did not attempt to conceal his proceedings from the elector and Gustavus. During the Lützen campaign, Arnim was operating with success at the head of an allied army in Silesia. In the following year he was under the hard necessity of opposing his old friend in the field, but little was done by either; the complicated political situation which followed the death of Gustavus at Lützen led him into a renewal of the private negotiations of the previous year, though he did nothing actually treasonable in his relations with Wallenstein. In 1634 Wallenstein was assassinated, and Arnim began at once more active operations. He won an important victory at Liegnitz in May 1634, but from this time he became more and more estranged from the Swedes. The peace of Prague followed, in which Arnim’s part, though considerable, was not all-important (1635). Soon after this event he refused an offer of high command in the French army and retired from active life. From 1637 to 1638 he was imprisoned in Stockholm, having been seized at Boytzenburg by the Swedes on suspicion of being concerned in various intrigues. He made his escape ultimately, and returned to Saxony. Arnim died suddenly at Dresden in 1641, whilst engaged in raising an army to free German soil from foreign armies of all kinds. (See Thirty Years' War.)

See K. G. Helbig, “Wallenstein und Arnim” (1850) and “Der Prager Friede,” in Raumer’s Historisches Taschenbuch (1858); also E. D. M. Kirchner, Das Schloss Boytzenburg, &c. (1860) and Archiv für die sächsische Geschichte, vol. viii. (1870).

ARNO, Arn or Aquila (c. 750-821), bishop and afterwards archbishop of Salzburg, entered the church at an early age, and after passing some time at Freising became abbot of Elnon, or St Amand as it was afterwards called, where he made the acquaintance of Alcuin. In 785 he was made bishop of Salzburg and in 787 was employed by Tassilo III., duke of the Bavarians, as an envoy to Charlemagne at Rome. He appears to have attracted the notice of the Frankish king, through whose influence in 798 Salzburg was made the seat of an archbishopric; and Arno, as the first holder of this office, became metropolitan of Bavaria and received the pallium from Pope Leo III. The area of his authority was extended to the east by the conquests of Charlemagne over the Avars, and he began to take a prominent part in the government of Bavaria. He acted as one of the missi dominici, and spent some time at the court of Charlemagne, where he was known by the assembled scholars as Aquila, and his name appears as one of the signatories to the emperor’s will. He established a library at Salzburg, furthered in other ways the interests of learning, and presided over several synods called to improve the condition of the church in Bavaria. Soon after the death of Charlemagne in 814, Arno appears to have withdrawn from active life, although he retained his archbishopric until his death on the 24th of January 821. Aided by a deacon named Benedict, Arno drew up about 788 a catalogue of lands and proprietary rights belonging to the church in Bavaria, under the title of Indiculus or Congestum Arnonis. An edition of this work, which is of considerable value to historical students, was published at Munich in 1869 with notes by F. Keinz. Many other works were produced under the protection of Arno, among them a Salzburg consuetudinary, an edition of which appears in Quellen und Erörterungen zur bayrischen und deutschen Geschichte, Band vii., edited by L. Rockinger (Munich, 1856). It has been suggested by W. von Giesebrecht that Arno was the author of an early section of Annales Laurissenses majores, which deals with the history of the Frankish kings from 741 to 829, and of which an edition appears in Monumenta Germaniae historica. Scriptores, Band i. pp. 128-131, edited by G. H. Pertz (Hanover, 1826). If this supposition be correct, Arno was the first extant writer to apply the name Deutsch (theodisca) to the German language.

ARNO (anc. Arnus), a river of Italy which rises from the Monte Falterona, about 25 m. E.N.E. of Florence, 4265 ft. above the sea. It first runs S.S.E. through a beautiful valley, the Casentino; near Arezzo it turns W., and at Montevarchi N.N.W.; 10 m. below it forces its way through the limestone rock at Incisa and 10 m. farther on, at Pontassieve, it is joined by the Sieve. Thence it runs westward to Florence and through the gorge of Golfolina onwards to Empoli and Pisa, receiving various tributaries in its course, and falls into the sea 7½ m. west of Pisa, after a total course of 155 m. In prehistoric times the river ran straight on along the valley of the Chiana and joined the Tiber near Orvieto; and there was a great lake, the north end of which was at Incisa and the south at the lake of Chiusi. The distance from Pisa to the mouth in the time of Strabo was only 2½ m. The Serchio (anc. Auser), which joined the Arno at Pisa in ancient times, now flows into the sea independently. The Arno is navigable for barges as far as Florence; but it is liable to sudden floods, and brings down with it large quantities of earth and stones, so that it requires careful regulation. The most remarkable inundations were those of 1537 and 1740; in the former year the water rose to 8 ft. in the streets of Florence. The valley between Incisa and Arezzo contains accumulations of fossil bones of the deer, elephant, rhinoceros, mastodon, hippopotamus, bear, tiger, &c.