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the “lead,” in which she had a success unequalled since the retirement of Mlle Mars. Her later triumphs were especially associated with new plays by Émile Augier, Le Fils de Giboyer and Maître Guerin. Her last appearance was in Edouard Cadol’s La Grand-maman; she retired in 1876, and died in 1897.

ARNSBERG, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Westphalia, romantically situated on an eminence almost surrounded by the river Ruhr, 44 m. S.E. of Münster and 58 m. E.N.E. of Düsseldorf by rail. Pop. (1900) 8490. It is the seat of the provincial authorities, and has three churches, a court of appeal, a Roman Catholic gymnasium, which was formerly the Benedictine abbey of Weddinghausen, a library, a normal school and a chamber of commerce. Weaving, brewing and distilling are carried on, and there are manufactories of white lead, shot and paper, works for the production of railway plant, and saw-mills. Near the town are the ruins of the castle of the counts of Arnsberg, the last of whom, Gottfried, sold his countship, in 1368, to the archbishop of Cologne. The countship was incorporated by the archbishops in their duchy of Westphalia, which in 1802 was assigned to Hesse-Darmstadt and in 1815 to Prussia. The town, which had received its first charter in 1237 and later joined the Hanseatic League, became the capital of the duchy.

ARNSTADT, a town in the principality of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen, Germany, on the river Gera, 11 m. S. of Erfurt, with which it is connected by rail. Pop. (1900) 14,413. There are five churches, four Protestant and one Catholic. The Evangelical Liebfrauenkirche, a Romanesque building (mainly 12th-century), has two octagonal towers and a 10th-century porch. The palace contains collections of pictures and porcelain, and attached to it is a magnificent tower, all that remains of the castle built in 1560. The town hall dates from 1561. The industries of Arnstadt include iron and other metal founding, the manufacture of leather, cloth, tobacco, weighing-machines, paper, playing-cards, chairs, gloves, shoes, iron safes, and beer, and market-gardening and trade in grain and wood are carried on. There are copper-mines in the neighbourhood, as well as tepid saline springs, the waters of which are used for bathing, and are much frequented in summer. Arnstadt dates back to the 8th century. It was bought in 1306 by the counts of Schwarzburg, who lived here till 1716.

ARNSWALDE, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Prussia, in a marshy district between four lakes, 20 m. S.W. of Stargard and on the main line between that place and Posen. Besides the Gothic church there are no noteworthy public buildings. Its industries include iron founding, machinery, and manufactures of cloth, matches and starch. Pop. (1900) 8665.

ARNULF (c. 850-899), Roman emperor, illegitimate son of Carloman, king of Bavaria and Italy, was made margrave of Carinthia about 876, and on his father’s death in 880 his dignity and possessions were confirmed by the new king of the east Franks, Louis III. The failure of legitimate male issue of the later Carolingians gave Arnulf a more important position than otherwise he would have occupied; but he did homage to the emperor Charles the Fat in 882, and spent the next few years in constant warfare with the Slavs and the Northmen. In 887, however, Arnulf identified himself with the disgust felt by the Bavarians and others at the incapacity of Charles the Fat. Gathering a large army, he marched to Tribur; Charles abdicated and the Germans recognized Arnulf as their king, a proceeding which L. von Ranke describes as “the first independent action of the German secular world.” Arnulf’s real authority did not extend far beyond the confines of Bavaria, and he contented himself with a nominal recognition of his supremacy by the kings who sprang up in various parts of the Empire. Having made peace with the Moravians, he gained a great and splendid victory over the Northmen near Louvain in October 891, and in spite of some opposition succeeded in establishing his illegitimate son, Zwentibold, as king of the district afterwards called Lorraine. Invited by Pope Formosus to deliver him from the power of Guido III., duke of Spoleto, who had been crowned emperor, Arnulf went to Italy in 894, but after storming Bergamo and receiving the homage of some of the nobles at Pavia, he was compelled by desertions from his army to return. The restoration of peace with the Moravians and the death of Guido prepared the way for a more successful expedition in 895 when Rome was stormed by his troops; and Arnulf was crowned emperor by Formosus in February 896. He then set out to establish his authority in Spoleto, but on the way was seized with paralysis. He returned to Bavaria, where he died on the 8th of December 899, and was buried at Regensburg. He left, by his wife Ota, a son Louis surnamed the Child. Arnulf possessed the qualities of a soldier, and was a loyal supporter of the church.

See “Annales Fuldenses” in the Monumenta Germaniae historica. Scriptores, Band i. (Hanover and Berlin, 1826); E. Dümmler, Geschichte des ostfränkischen Reichs (Leipzig, 1887-1888); M. J. L. de Gagern, Arnulfi imperatoris vita (Bonn, 1837); E. Dümmler, De Arnulfo Francorum rege (Berlin, 1852); W. B. Wenck, Die Erhebung Arnulfs und der Zerfall des karolingischen Reiches (Leipzig, 1852); O. Dietrich, Beiträge zur Geschichte Arnolfs von Kärnthen und Ludwigs des Kindes (Berlin, 1890); E. Mühlbacher, Die Regesten des Kaiserreichs unter den Karolingern (Innsbruck, 1881).

AROIDEAE (Arum family), a large and wide-spread botanical order of Monocotyledons containing about 1000 species in 105 genera. It is generally distributed in temperate and tropical regions, but especially developed in warm countries. The common British representative of the order, Arum maculatum (cuckoo-pint, lords and ladies, or wake robin), gives a meagre idea of its development. The plants are generally herbaceous, often, however, reaching a gigantic size, but are sometimes shrubby, as in Pothos, a genus of shrubby climbing plants, chiefly Malayan. Monstera is a tropical American genus of climbing shrubs, with large often much-perforated leaves; the fruiting spikes of a Mexican species, M. deliciosa, are eaten. The roots of the climbing species are of interest in their adaptation