corruption and in overcoming political prejudices. He resigned in 1782, but in the following year he took office again as vice-treasurer of Ireland under the coalition ministry, which he had been instrumental in arranging, and was included in the privy council, resigning with the government in December. He opposed strongly Pitt’s propositions for free trade between England and Ireland in 1785, but took office with Pitt as a member of the committee on trade and plantations, and negotiated in 1786 and 1787 Pitt’s important commercial treaty with France, and agreements concerning the East India Companies and Holland. In 1787 he published his History of New Holland. Next year he was sent as ambassador to Spain, and after his return was created (September 1789) Baron Auckland in the Irish peerage. The same year he was sent on a mission to Holland, and represented English interests there with great zeal and prudence during the critical years of 1790 to 1793, obtaining the assistance of the Dutch fleet in 1790 on the menace of a war with Spain, signing the convention relating to the Netherlands the same year, and in 1793 attending the congress at Antwerp. He retired from the public service in the latter year, received a pension of £2300, and was created Baron Auckland of West Auckland, Durham, in the English peerage. During his retirement in the country at Beckenham, he continued his intimacy with Pitt, his nearest neighbour at Holwood, who at one time had thoughts of marrying his daughter; and with Pitt’s sanction he published his Remarks on the Apparent Cicumstances of the War in 1795, to prepare public opinion for a peace. In 1798 he was included in Pitt’s government as joint postmaster-general, and supported strongly the income tax and the Irish Union, assisting in drawing up the act embodying the latter. In 1799 he brought in a bill to check adultery by preventing the marriage of the guilty parties, and the same year took a mischievous part in the cabal against Sir Ralph Abercromby. He severely criticized Pitt’s resignation in 1801, from which he had endeavoured to dissuade him, and retained office under Addington. This terminated his friendship with Pitt, who excluded him from his administration in 1804 though he increased his pension. Auckland was included in Granville’s ministry of “All the Talents” as president of the board of trade in 1806. He held the appointments of auditor and director of Greenwich hospital, recorder of Grantham, and chancellor of the Marischal College in Aberdeen. He died on the 28th of May 1814.
He had married in 1776 Eleanor, sister of the first Lord Minto, and had a large family. Emily Eden (1797-1869), the novelist, was one of his daughters. On the death of his son George, 2nd baron and earl of Auckland (q.v.), the barony passed to the 1st baron’s younger son Robert John (1799-1870), bishop of Bath and Wells, from whom the later barons were descended, and who was also the father of Sir Ashley Eden (1831-1887), lieutenant-governor of Bengal. The 1st baron had two distinguished brothers—Morton Eden (1752-1830), a diplomatist, who married Lady Elizabeth Henley, and in 1799 was created 1st Baron Henley (his family, from 1831, taking the name of Henley instead of Eden); and Sir Robert Eden, governor of Maryland, whose son, Sir Frederic Morton Eden (1766-1809), was a well-known economist.
AUCKLAND, a city and seaport on the east coast of North Island, New Zealand, in Eden county; capital of the province of its name, and the seat of a bishop. Pop. (1906) 37,736; including suburbs, 82,101. It is situated at the mouth of an arm of Hauraki Gulf, and is only 6 m. distant from the head of Manukau harbour on the western coast. The situation is extremely beautiful. The Hauraki Gulf, a great square inlet opening northward, is studded with islands of considerable elevation; Rangitoto, which protects the harbour, is a volcanic cone reaching nearly 1000 ft. The isthmus on which the town stands (which position has caused it to be likened to Corinth) can be crossed without surmounting any great elevation, and offers a feasible canal route. A number of small extinct volcanoes, however, appear in all directions. To the west the Titirangi hills exceed 1400 ft. Some of the volcanic soil is barren, but much of the district is clothed in luxuriant vegetation.
Auckland harbour, one of the best in New Zealand, is approachable by the largest vessels at the lowest tide. There are two graving docks. Queen Street, the principal thoroughfare, leads inland from the main dock, and contains the majority of the public buildings. There is a small government house, standing in beautiful grounds, adjoining Albert Park, with plantations of oaks and pines. The government offices, art gallery and exchange, with St Mary’s cathedral (Anglican), a building in a combination of native timbers, St Paul’s and St Patrick’s cathedral (Roman Catholic), are noteworthy buildings. The art gallery and free library contain excellent pictures, and valuable books and MSS. presented by Sir G. Grey. The museum contains one of the best existing collections of Maori art. There are an opera-house and an academy of music. The Auckland University College and the grammar school are the principal educational establishments. The parks are the Domain, with a botanical garden, the Albert Park near the harbour, with a bronze statue of Queen Victoria, the extensive grounds at One Tree Hill on the outskirts, and Victoria Park on Freeman’s Bay. The principal thoroughfares are served by electric tramway. Of the suburbs, Newton, Parnell and Newmarket are in reality outlying parts of the town itself. Devonport, Birkenhead and Northcote are beautifully situated on the north shore of the inlet, and are served by steam-ferries. Several other residential suburbs lie among the hills on the mainland, such as Mount Albert, Mount Eden and Epsom. Onehunga is a small port on Manukau harbour, served by rail. In Parnell is the former residence of Bishop Selwyn, who, arriving in the colony in 1842, assisted to draw up the constitution of the Anglican church. There are many associations with his name in the neighbourhood. The prospect over the town and its environs from Mount Eden is justly famous. The hill is terraced with former native fortifications.
Auckland has industries of sugar-refining, ship-building and paper-, rope- and brick-making, and timber is worked. The town was founded as capital of the colony in 1840 by Governor Hobson. There is communication both south and north by rail, and regular steamers serve the ports of the colony, the principal Pacific Islands, Australia, &c. From 1853 to 1876 Auckland was the seat of the provincial government, and until 1865 that of the central government, which was then transferred to Wellington. The first session of the general assembly took place here in 1854. Auckland is under municipal government.
AUCKLAND ISLANDS, a group in the Pacific Ocean, discovered in 1806 by Captain Briscoe, of the English whaler “Ocean,” in 50° 24′ S., 166° 7′ E. The islands, of volcanic origin, are very fertile, and are covered with forest. They were granted to the Messrs Enderby by the British government as a whaling station, but the establishment was abandoned in 1852. The islands belong politically to New Zealand.
AUCTION PITCH, a card game which is a popular variation of All Fours (q.v.). The name is derived from the rule that the first card played, or pitched, is the trump suit, and that the eldest hand has the privilege of pitching it or of selling out to the highest bidder. A full pack is used, and the cards rank as in All Fours, namely from ace down to 2, ace being highest in cutting also. From four to seven may play, each player being provided with seven white counters, and also with red counters in case stakes are played for. Each player receives six cards in every deal, three at a time, no trump being turned. The object is to get rid of the white counters, one of which may be put into the pool either (1) for holding the highest trump played; (2) for having the lowest trump dealt to one; (3) for taking the Jack (knave) of trumps; or (4) for winning the game, namely the greatest number of pips that count. In case of a tie of pips no game is scored. If the eldest hand decides to pitch and not to sell out, he may do so, but is obliged to make four points or be set back that number. If he decides to sell, he says “I pass,” and the player at his left bids for the privilege of pitching the trump or passes, &c. When a bid has been made the rest must