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annual contribution of £18,000. Consequently, in 1884, Basutoland ceased to be a portion of the Cape Colony and became a British crown colony. Native laws and customs were interfered with as little as possible and the authority of the chiefs—all members of the Moshesh family—was maintained. Moshesh had been succeeded as paramount chief by his son, Letsie, and he in turn was succeeded in 1891 by Lerothodi (c. 1837-1905). These chieftains acted in concert with the British representative in the country, to whom was given the title of resident commissioner. The first commissioner was Sir Marshall Clarke, to whose tact and ability the country owed much. The period of warfare over, the Basuto turned their attention more and more to agricultural pursuits and also showed themselves very receptive of missionary influence. Trade increased, and in 1891 Basutoland was admitted to the customs union, which already existed between Orange Free State, Cape Colony and British Bechuanaland. When Lord (then Sir Alfred) Milner visited Basutoland in 1898, on his way to Bloemfontein, he was received by 15,000 mounted Basuto. The chiefs also attended a large meeting at Maseru, and gave expression to their gratitude for the beneficent character of Queen Victoria’s rule and protection. On the outbreak of the Boer War in 1899, these same chiefs, at a great meeting held in the presence of the resident commissioner, gave a further protestation of their loyalty to Her Majesty. They remained passive throughout the War and the neutrality of the country was respected by both armies. One chief alone sought to take advantage of the situation by disloyal action, and his offence was met A crown colony. by a year’s imprisonment. The conversion of Basutoland into a crown colony contributed alike to the prosperity of the Basuto, the security of the property of neighbouring colonists and a peaceful condition among the natives of South Africa generally. In pursuance of the policy of encouraging the self-governing powers of the Basuto, a national council was instituted and held its first sitting in July 1903. In August 1905 the paramount chief Lerothodi died. In early life he had distinguished himself in the wars with the Boers, and in 1880 he took an active part in the revolt against the Cape government. Since 1884 he had been a loyal supporter of the imperial authorities, being unwavering in his adherence in critical times. Fearless and masterful he also possessed high diplomatic gifts, and though on occasion arbitrary and passionate he was neither revengeful nor cruel. On the 19th of September following Lerothodi’s death, the national council, with the concurrence of the imperial government, elected his son Letsie as paramount chief. The completion in October 1905 of a railway putting Maseru in connexion with the South African railway system proved a great boon to the community. During the rebellion of the natives in Natal and Zululand in 1906 the Basuto remained perfectly quiet.

Authorities.—The Basutos (2 vols., London, 1909), a standard history, and “Basutoland and the Basutos” in Jnl. Ryl. Col. Inst. 1901, both by Sir G. Lagden, resident-commissioner, 1893-1901; E. Jacottet, “Moeurs, coutumes et superstitions des Ba-Souts,” in Bull. Soc. neuchâteloise Géog., vol. ix. pp. 107-151, 1897; G. M. Theal, Basutoland Records (Cape Town, 1883); E. Casalis, Les Bassutos (Paris, 1859), a description of exploration, manners and customs, the result of twenty-three years’ residence in the country; Minnie Martin, Basutoland: its Legends and Customs (London, 1903); Mrs F. A. Barkly, Among Boers and Basutos (new ed., London, 1897), a record, chiefly, of the Gun War of 1880-1882; C. W. Mackintosh, Coillard of the Zambesi (London, 1907). For geology consult E. Cohen, “Geognostisch-petrographische Skizzen aus Süd-Afrika,” Neues Jahrb. f. Min., 1874, and N. Jahrb. Beil., Bd. v., 1887; D. Draper, “Notes on the Geology of South-eastern Africa,” Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc., vol. l., 1894; Hatch-Corstorphine. The Geology of South Africa (London, 1905). For current information see the annual report on Basutoland (Colonial Office, London). Many books dealing with South Africa generally have chapters relating to Basutoland, e.g. A.P. Hillier, South African Studies (London, 1900); James Bryce, Impressions of South Africa (3rd ed., London, 1899). Consult also Theal’s History of South Africa (1908-9 ed.).

 (F. R. C.; A. P. H.) 

BAT,[1] a name for any member of the zoological order Chiroptera (q.v.). Bats are insectivorous animals modified for flight, with slight powers of progression on the ground; the patagium or “flying-membrane” of some squirrels and of Galeopithecus (q.v.) probably indicates the way in which the modification was effected. They are distributed throughout the world, but are most abundant in the tropics and the warmer parts of the temperate zones; within these limits the largest forms occur. There is great variation in size; the Malay “flying-fox” (Pteropus edulis) measures about a foot in the head and body, and has a wing-spread of 5 ft.; while in the smaller forms the head and body may be only about 2 in., and the wing-spread no more than a foot. The coloration is generally sombre, but to this there are exceptions; the fruit-bats are brownish yellow or russet on the under surface; two South American species are white; Blainville’s chin-leafed bat is bright orange; and the Indian painted bat (Cerivoula picta) with its deep orange dress, spotted with black on the wing-membranes, has reminded observers of a large butterfly. In habits bats are social, nocturnal and crepuscular; the insect-eating species feed on the wing, in winter in the temperate regions they migrate to a warmer climate, or hibernate, as do the British bats. The sense-organs are highly developed; the wing-membranes are exceedingly sensitive; the nose-leaf is also an organ of perception, and the external ear is specially modified to receive sound-waves. Most bats are insect-eaters, but the tropical “flying foxes” or fox-bats of the Old World live on fruit; some are blood-suckers, and two feed on small fish. Twelve species are British, among which are the pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pygmaeus, or P. pipistrellus), the long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus), the noctule (Pipistrellus [Pterygistes] noctulus) the greater and lesser horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrum-equinum and R. hipposiderus), &c. (See Flying-fox and Vampire.)

BATAC, a town of the province of Ilocos Norte, Luzon, Philippine Islands, 10 m. S. of Laoag, the capital. Pop. (1903) 19,524; subsequently, in October 1903, the town of Banna (pop. 4015) was annexed. Cacao, tobacco, cotton, rice and indigo are grown in the neighbouring country, and the town has a considerable trade in these and other commodities; it also manufactures sugar, fans and woven fabrics. Batac was founded in 1587. It is the birthplace and home of Archbishop Gregorio Aglipay (b. 1860), the founder of an important sect of Filipino Independent Catholics.

BATALA, a town of British India, in the Gurdaspur district of the Punjab, with a station on a branch of the North-Western railway, 24 m. from Amritsar. Pop. (1901) 27,365. It is an important centre of trade, with manufactures of cotton and silk goods, shawls, brass-ware, soap and leather. There are two mission schools.

BATALHA (i.e. battle), a town of Portugal, in the district of Leiria, formerly included in the province of Estremadura; 8 m. S. of Leiria. Pop. (1900) 3858. Batalha, which occupies the site of the medieval Canoeira, is chiefly interesting for its great Dominican monastery of Santa Maria da Victoria (“St Mary of the Victory”), also known as Batalha. Both town and monastery owe their names to the battle fought on the plain between Canoeira and Aljubarrota, 9 m. S. W., in which John I. of Portugal defeated John I. of Castile in 1385 and secured the independence of his kingdom. The monastery is built of golden-brown limestone, resembling marble, and richly sculptured. In size and beauty it excels all the other buildings of Portugal in which Gothic and Moorish architecture are combined. Its ground-plan may be roughly described as a parallelogram, measuring about 500 ft. from north to south, and 445 from east to west; with the circular annexe of the royal mausoleum on the east, and the Founder’s chapel at the south-western corner. In the centre is the royal cloister, which is flanked by the refectory, now a museum, on the west; and by the chapter-house, on the east. Two smaller cloisters, named respectively after Alphonso V. and John III., form the northern division of the parallelogram; its southern division is the Gothic church. The Founder’s chapel contains the tomb of John I. (d. 1433) and Philippa of Lancaster (d. 1416), his queen, with the tomb of Prince Henry the Navigator (d. 1460). Like the royal mausoleum, where

  1. M. E. bakke, the change to “bat” having apparently been influenced by Lat. batta, blatta, moth. The word is thus distinct from the other common term “bat,” the implement for striking, which is probably connected with Fr. battre, though a Celtic or simply onomatopoetic origin has been suggested.