several later monarchs are buried, it is remarkable for the intricacy and exquisite finish of its carved stonework. The monastery was probably founded in 1388. Plans and masons were procured from England by Queen Philippa, and the work was entrusted to A. Domingues, a native architect, and Huetor Houguet, an Irishman. Only the royal cloister, church and Founder’s chapel were included in the original design; and all three show signs of English influence. Various additions were made up to 1551, beginning with the royal mausoleum and ending with the cloister of John III. Considerable damage was inflicted by the earthquake of 1755; and in 1810 the monastery was sacked by the French. It was secularized in 1834 and declared a national monument in 1840. Thenceforward it was gradually restored.
BATANGAS, a town, port of entry, and the capital of the province of Batangas, Luzon, Philippine Islands, near the Batangas river, about 1 m. from its mouth on the E. coast of the Gulf of Batangas, and about 65 m. S. by E. of Manila. Pop. (1903) 33,131. The United States government has established a military post here, and the town has numerous fine public buildings and private residences. It is the most important port of a province noted for the fertility of its soil and the industry of its inhabitants. Its exports, which are large, include rice, coffee of excellent quality, cacao, sugar, Indian corn, horses and cattle. The horses of Batangas are unusually strong and active. Cotton is produced, and is woven into fabrics by the women. The language is Tagalog.
BATARNAY, IMBERT DE (? 1438-1523), French statesman, was born of an old but obscure family in Dauphiné, about the year 1438. In consequence of a chance circumstance he entered into relations with the dauphin Louis, at that time (1455) in arms against the king his father; he attached himself to the prince, and followed him on his retreat into Burgundy. From the beginning of his reign Louis XI. loaded Batarnay with favours: he married him to a rich heiress, Georgette de Montchenu, lady of Le Bouchage; besides making him captain of Mont Saint Michel and giving him valuable estates, with, later, the titles of counsellor and chamberlain to the king. In 1469 Batarnay was sent to keep watch upon the duke of Guienne’s intrigues, which began to appear dangerous. As lieutenant-general in Roussillon in 1475 he protected the countryside against the wrath of the king, who wished to repress with cruel severity a rebellion of the inhabitants. He was present at the interview between Louis XI. and Edward IV. of England at Picquigny, and was afterwards employed on negotiations with the duke of Burgundy. In accordance with the recommendations of his father, Charles VIII. kept the lord of Le Bouchage in his confidential service. During the differences that arose in 1485 between the regent, Anne of Beaujeu, and the dukes of Orleans, Brittany and Alençon, Imbert de Batarnay kept the inhabitants of Orleans faithful to the king. He proved his skill in the negotiations concerning the marquisate of Saluzzo and the town of Genoa. During the Naples expedition he was in charge of the dauphin, Charles Orland, who died in 1495. He treated with Maximilian of Austria to prevent him from entering Picardy during the war with Naples, and then proceeded to Castile to claim promised support. Under Louis XII. he took part in the expedition against the Genoese republic in 1507. Francis I. employed him to negotiate the proposed marriage of Charles of Austria with Renée of France, daughter of Louis XII., and appointed him governor to the dauphin Francis in 1518. He died on the 12th of May 1523.
See also B. de Mandrot’s Ymbert de Batarnay (Paris, 1886).
BATAVIA, a residency of the island of Java, Dutch East Indies, bounded E., S. and W. by the residencies of Krawana, Preanger and Bantam, and N. by the Java Sea. It also comprises a number of small islands in the Java Sea, including the Thousand Islands group, with a total area of 24 sq. m. The population in 1898 was 1,313,383, including 12,434 Europeans, 82,510 Chinese, 3426 Arabs and other Asiatic foreigners. The natives belong to a Sundanese group, but in the north contain a large admixture of Malays. The northern half of the province is flat, and even marshy along the coast, and consists of a broad band of alluvium formed by the series of parallel rivers descending from the south. The southern half on the other hand is covered by a mountain range whose chief peaks are situated along the southern border, namely Halimun mountain, the volcanoes Salak, Pangerango and Gede, and the Megamendung. The soil is fertile, and whereas rice is mainly grown on the lowlands the highlands are especially suitable for the cultivation of coffee, tea, tobacco, cinchona and vanilla. Extensive cocoanut plantations are also found in the plains, and market-gardening is practised in the neighbourhood of the towns. Sugar was formerly cultivated. The government of the residency of Batavia differs from that of the other residencies in having no native regencies, the lands being privately owned. The divisions of the residency are Batavia, town and surroundings, Tangerang, Meester Cornelis and Buitenzorg, the first being directly governed by a resident and the remainder by assistant residents. As early as the second half of the 17th century the Dutch East India Company began the practice of selling portions of the land to private persons, and of granting other portions as the reward of good services. A large strip of hill-country, almost corresponding to the present southern or Buitenzorg division of the residency, was appropriated by the governor-general in 1745 and attached to that office. In 1808, however, Marshal Daendels disposed of this property to various purchasers, including the Dutch government, and thus the whole of the residency gradually passed into private hands. Hence the administration of the residency is largely confined to police duties. The principal towns are Batavia (q.v.), which is the capital of the residency, as well as the seat of government of the whole Dutch East Indies, Meester Cornelis, Tangerang, Bekasi and Buitenzorg (q.v.). Tangerang and Bekasi are important centres of trade. The Buitenzorg hill-country is much visited on account of its beauty, and cool and healthy climate. Gadok is a health resort 6 m. south-east of Buitenzorg.
BATAVIA, a city and seaport on the north coast of the island of Java, and the capital of all the Dutch settlements in the East. The population in 1880 was 96,957; in 1898, 115,567; including 9423 Europeans, 26,433 Chinese, 2828 Arabs and 132 other Asiatic foreigners. It is situated on both sides of the river Jacatra or Jilivong, in a swampy plain at the head of a capacious bay. The streets are for the most part straight and regular, and many of them have a breadth of from 100 to 200 ft. In several cases there is a canal in the centre lined with stone, and protected by low parapets or banks, while almost every street and square is fringed with trees. The old town has greatly changed from its condition in the 18th century. It was then surrounded by strong fortifications, and contained a number of important buildings, such as the town-house (built in 1652 and restored in 1706), the exchange, the infirmary and orphan asylum, and the European churches. But the ramparts were long ago demolished; only natives, Malays, Arabs and Chinese live here, and the great European houses have either fallen into decay or been converted into magazines and warehouses. The European inhabitants live principally in the new town, which was gradually formed by the integration of Weltevreden (Well-content), Molenvliet (Mill-stream), Rijswijk (Rice-town), Noordwijk (North-town), Koningsplein (King’s square), and other suburban villages or stations. The situation of this modern part is higher and healthier. The imitation of Dutch arrangements has been avoided, and the natural advantages of the situation and climate have been turned to account. The houses, generally of a single storey or two at most, are frequently separated from each other by rows of trees. Batavia contains numerous buildings connected with the civil and military organisation of the government. The governor-general’s palace and the government buildings are the most important of these; in the district of Weltevreden are also the barracks, and the artillery school, as well as the military and civil hospital, and not far off is the Frederik-Hendrik citadel built in 1837. Farther inland, at Meester Cornelis, are barracks and a school for under-officers. The