guardians, in 1841, to send him on a voyage to India. When he returned to Paris, after less than a year’s absence, he was of age; but in a year or two his extravagance threatened to exhaust his small patrimony, and his family obtained a decree to place his property in trust. His salons of 1845 and 1846 attracted immediate attention by the boldness with which he propounded many views then novel, but since generally accepted. He took part with the revolutionaries in 1848, and for some years interested himself in republican politics but his permanent convictions were aristocratic and Catholic. Baudelaire was a slow and fastidious worker, and it was not until 1857 that he produced his first and famous volume of poems, Fleurs du mal. Some of these had already appeared in the Revue des deux mondes when they were published by Baudelaire’s friend Auguste Poulet Malassis, who had inherited a printing business at Alençon. The consummate art displayed in these verses was appreciated by a limited public, but general attention was caught by the perverse selection of morbid subjects, and the book became a by-word for unwholesomeness among conventional critics. Victor Hugo, writing to the poet, said, “Vous dotez le ciel de l’art d’un rayon macabre, vous créez un frisson nouveau.” Baudelaire, the publisher, and the printer were successfully prosecuted for offending against public morals. The obnoxious pieces were suppressed, but printed later as Les Épaves (Brussels, 1866). Another edition of the Fleurs du mal, without these poems, but with considerable additions, appeared in 1861.
Baudelaire had learnt English in his childhood, and had found some of his favourite reading in the English “Satanic” romances, such as Lewis’s Monk. In 1846-1847 he became acquainted with the works of Edgar Allan Poe, in which he discovered romances and poems which had, he said, long existed in his own brain, but had never taken shape. From this time till 1865 he was largely occupied with his version of Poe’s works, producing masterpieces of the art of translation in Histoires extraordinaires (1852), Nouvelles Histoires extraordinaires (1857), Adventures d’Arthur Gordon Pym, Eureka, and Histoires grotesques et sérieuses (1865). Two essays on Poe are to be found in his Œuvres complètes (vols. v. and vi.). Meanwhile his financial difficulties grew upon him. He was involved in the failure of Poulet Malassis in 1861, and in 1864 he left Paris for Belgium, partly in the vain hope of disposing of his copyrights. He had for many years a liaison with a coloured woman, whom he helped to the end of his life in spite of her gross conduct. He had recourse to opium, and in Brussels he began to drink to excess. Paralysis followed, and the last two years of his life were spent in maisons de santé in Brussels and in Paris, where he died on the 31st of August 1867.
His other works include:—Petits Poèmes en prose; a series of art criticisms published in the Pays, Exposition universelle; studies on Gustave Flaubert (in L’artiste, 18th of October 1857); on Théophile Gautier (Revue contemporaine, September 1858); valuable notices contributed to Eugène Crépet’s Poètes français; Les Paradis artificiels opium et haschisch (1860); Richard Wagner et Tannhäuser à Paris (1861); Un Dernier Chapitre de l’histoire des œuvres de Balzac (1880), originally an article entitled “Comment on paye ses dettes quand on a du génie,” in which his criticism is turned against his friends H. de Balzac, Théophile Gautier, and Gérard de Nerval.
Bibliography.—An edition of his Lettres (1841-1866) was issued by the Soc. du Mercure de France in 1906. His Œuvres complètes were edited (1868-1870) by his friend Charles Asselineau, with a preface by Théophile Gautier. Asselineau also undertook a vindication of his character from the attacks made upon it in his Charles Baudelaire, sa vie, son œuvre (1869). He left some material of more private interest in a MS. entitled Baudelaire. See Charles Baudelaire, souvenirs, correspondance, bibliographie (1872), by Charles Cousin and Spoelberch de Lovenjoul; Charles Baudelaire, œuvres posthumes et correspondances inédites (1887), containing a journal entitled Mon cœur mis à nu, and a biographical study by Eugène Crépet; also Le Tombeau de Charles Baudelaire (1896), a collection of pieces unpublished or prohibited during the author’s lifetime, edited by S. Mallarmé and others, with a study of the text of the Fleurs du mal by Prince A. Ourousof; Féli Gautier, Charles Baudelaire (Brussels, 1904), with facsimiles of drawings by Baudelaire himself; A. de la Fitzelière and G. Decaux, Charles Baudelaire (1868) in the series of Essais de bibliographie contemporaine; essays by Paul Bourget, Essais de psychologie conlemporaine (1883), and Maurice Spronck, Les Artistes littéraires (1889). Among English translations from Baudelaire are Poems in Prose, by A. Symons (1905), and a selection for the Canterbury Poets (1904), by F. P. Sturm.
BAUDIER, MICHEL (c. 1589-1645), French historian, was born in Languedoc. During the reign of Louis XIII. he was historiographer to the Court of France. He contributed to French history by writing Histoire de la guerre de Flandre 1559-1609 (Paris, 1615); Histoire de l’administration du cardinal d’Amboise, grand ministre d’état en France (Paris, 1634), a defence of the cardinal; and Histoire de l’administration de l’abbé Suger (Paris, 1645). Taking an especial interest in the Turks he wrote Inventaire général de l’histoire des Turcs (Paris, 1619); Histoire générale de la religion des Turcs avec la vie de leur prophète Mahomet (Paris, 1626); and Histoire générale du sérail et de la cour du grand Turc (Paris, 1626; English trans. by E. Grimeston, London, 1635). Having heard the narrative of a Jesuit who had returned from China, Baudier wrote Histoire de la cour du roi de Chine (Paris, 1626; English trans. in vol. viii. of the Collection of Voyages and Travels of A. and J. Churchill, London, 1707-1747). He also wrote Vie du cardinal Ximénès (Paris, 1635), which was again published with a notice of the author by E. Baudier (Paris, 1851), and a curious romance entitled Histoire de l’incomparable administration de Romieu, grand ministre d’état de Raymond Bérenger, comte de Provence (Paris, 1635).
See J. Lelong, Bibliothèque historique de la France (Paris, 1768-1778); L. Moréri, Le Grand Dictionnaire historique (Amsterdam, 1740).
BAUDRILLART, HENRI JOSEPH LÉON (1821-1892), French economist, was born in Paris on the 28th of November 1821. His father, Jacques Joseph (1774-1832), was a distinguished writer on forestry, and was for many years in the service of the French government, eventually becoming the head of that branch of the department of agriculture which had charge of the state forests. Henri was educated at the Collège Bourbon, where he had a distinguished career, and in 1852 he was appointed assistant lecturer in political economy to M. Chevalier at the Collège de France. In 1866, on the creation of a new chair of economic history, Baudrillart was appointed to fill it. His first work was an Éloge de Turgot (1846), which at once won him notice among the economists. In 1853 he published an erudite work on Jean Bodin et son temps; then in 1857 a Manuel d’économie politique; in 1860, Des rapports de la morale et de l’économie politique; in 1865, La Liberté du travail; and from 1878 to 1880, L’Histoire du luxe ... depuis l’antiquité jusqu’à nos jours, in four volumes. At the instance of the Académie des Sciences Morales et Politiques he investigated the condition of the farming classes of France, and published the results in four volumes (1885, et seq.). From 1855 to 1864 he directed the Journal des économistes, and contributed many articles to the Journal des débats and to the Revue des deux mondes. His writings are distinguished by their style, as well as by their profound erudition. In 1863 he was elected member of the Académie des Sciences Morales et Politiques; in 1870 he was appointed inspector-general of public libraries, and in 1881 he succeeded J. Garnier as professor of political economy at the École des Ponts et Chaussées. Baudrillart was made an officer of the Legion of Honour in 1889. He died in Paris on the 24th of January 1892.
BAUDRY, or Balderich, OF BOURGUEIL (1046 or 1047-1130), archbishop of Dol, historian and poet, was born at Meung-sur-Loire, where he passed his early days. Educated at Meung and at Angers, he entered the Benedictine abbey of Bourgueil, and in 1079 became abbot of this place, but his time was devoted to literary pursuits rather than to his official duties. Having failed to secure the bishopric of Orleans in 1097, he became archbishop of Dol in 1107, and went to Rome for his pallium in 1108. The bishopric of Dol had been raised to the rank of an archbishopric during the 10th century by Nomenoé, king of Brittany, but this step had been objected to by the archbishops of Tours. Consequently the position of the see was somewhat ambiguous, and Baudry is referred to both as archbishop and as