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up. Sometimes the three players cut, the one who cuts the highest card plays against the other two in consultation, and continues to do so till the allies win a game, when the two cut as before to see who shall be the single player. Only two packs are then used.

When four play four packs are used. The players may then score independently or may play as partners. A second double bézique or triple bézique may be scored as before; to form them the béziques may be declared from the hand of either partner. A player may declare when he or his partner takes a trick. In playing the last eight tricks, the winner of the last trick and the adversary to his left play their cards against each other, and then the other two similarly play theirs. Four people may also play in pairs by consultation, only two packs being then required.

Polish Bézique (also called “Open Bézique” and “Fildniski”) differs from ordinary bézique in the following particulars. The game is not less than 2000 up. Whenever a scoring card is played, the winner of the trick places it face upwards in front of him (the same with both cards if two scoring cards are played to a trick), forming rows of aces, kings, queens, knaves and trump tens (called open cards). Cards of the same denomination are placed overlapping one another lengthwise from the player towards his adversary to economise space. When a scoring card is placed among the open cards, all the sevens, eights, nines, and plain suit tens in the tricks are turned down and put on one side. Open cards cannot be played a second time, and can only be used in declaring. Whether so used or not they remain face upwards on the table until the end of the hand, including the last eight tricks. A player can declare after winning a trick and before drawing again, when the trick won contains a card or cards, which added to his open cards complete any combination that scores. Every declaration must include a card played to the trick last won. Aces and tens must be scored as soon as won, and not at the end of the hand. The seven of trumps can be exchanged by the winner of the trick containing it; and if the turn-up card is one that can be used in declaring, it becomes an open card when exchanged. The seven of trumps when not exchanged is scored for by the player winning the trick containing it.

Compound declarations are allowed, i.e. cards added to the open cards can at once be used, without waiting to win another trick, in as many combinations of different classes as they will form with the winner’s open cards. For example: A has three open kings, and he wins a trick containing a king. Before drawing again he places the fourth king with the other three, and scores 80 for kings. This is a simple declaration. But suppose the card led was the queen of trumps, and A wins it with the king, and he has the following open cards—three kings, three queens, and ace, ten, knave of trumps. He at once declares royal marriage (40); four kings (80); four queens (60); and sequence (250); and scores in all, 430. Again: ace of spades is turned up, and ace of hearts is led. The second player has two open aces, and wins the ace of hearts with the seven of trumps and exchanges. He scores for the exchange, 10; for the ace of hearts, 10; for the ace of spades, 10; and adds the aces to his open cards, and scores 100 for aces; in all, 130. If a declaration or part of a compound declaration is omitted, and the winner of the trick draws again, he cannot amend his score.

The ordinary rule holds that a second declaration cannot be made of a card already declared in the same class. Thus: a queen once married, cannot be married again; a fifth king added to four already declared does not entitle to another score for kings. The fundamental point to be borne in mind is, that no declaration can be effected by means of cards held in the hand. Thus: A having three open queens and a queen in hand cannot add it to his open cards. He must win another trick containing a queen, when he can declare queens. Declarations continue during the play of the last eight tricks just the same as during the play of the other cards.

Rubicon Bézique.—Four packs are used. Nine cards are dealt by three to each player. The rules of Polish bézique hold good in regard to dealing, leading, playing to lead, drawing and declaring; but a player who receives a hand containing no picture-card (king, queen, or knave) scores 50 for carte blanche, which he shows. If he does not draw a picture-card, he can again score for carte blanche. The trump suit is decided by the first sequence or marriage declared. As four packs are used, triple and quadruple bézique may be made. Triple bézique counts 1500, quadruple 4500. Tricks are left face upwards till a brisque (ace or ten) is played, when the winner takes all the played cards and puts them in a heap; their only value is the value of the brisques, which are only counted when the scores are very close; then they are used to decide the game. They may be counted during the play, provided there are not more than twelve cards in the stock. Declarations can only be made after winning a trick and before drawing. In addition to the ordinary bézique declarations, sequence, counting 150, can be made in plain suits. Declared cards, except carte blanche, remain on the table. If the holder of carte blanche hold four aces and wins the first trick, he can declare his aces. With the exceptions already made, the scores for declarations are the same as at ordinary bézique. Declaration is not compulsory. Cards led or played cannot be declared. There are three classes of declarations, their order being (1) marriage and sequence, (2) bézique, (3) fours. A card once declared can be used for a second declaration, but only in an equal or superior class. If a card of a declared combination be played to a trick, another card of the same rank may be used to form a second similar combination; e.g. if aces be declared and one of them be played by the playing of a fifth ace, aces can be declared again. If a player has a chance of a double declaration he can declare both, but can only score one at the time. As in other variations of bézique he announces, say, “forty, and twenty to score.” He should repeat, “Twenty to score,” after every trick, until he can legally score it, but if he plays a card of the combination he cannot score the points. To the last nine tricks, after the stock is exhausted, the second player must follow suit and win the trick by trumping or over-playing, if he can. The winner of the odd trick scores 50. The game consists of one deal. In reckoning the score all fractions of 100 are neglected; the winner scores 500 for game in addition to the difference between his own points and his opponent’s. The loser is “rubiconed” if he does not score 1000 points, in which case the winner adds the loser’s points to his own, takes 300 for brisques and 1000 for game, but the loser may claim his brisques to save a rubicon, though they are not reckoned among his points. If a rubiconed player has scored less than 100 the opponent counts the score as 100.

BEZWADA, a town of British India, in the Kistna district of Madras, on the left bank of the river Kistna, at the head of its delta. Pop. (1901) 24,224. Here are the headquarters of the Kistna canal system, which irrigates more than 500,000 acres, and also provides navigation throughout the delta. The anicut or dam at Bezwada, begun in 1852, consists of a mass of rubble, fronted with masonry, 1240 yds. long. Here also is the central junction of the East Coast railway from Madras to Calcutta, 267 m. from Madras, where one branch line comes down from the Warangal coalfield in the Nizam’s Dominions, and another from Bellary on the Southern Mahratta line. Ancient cuttings on the hills west of Bezwada have been held by some to mark the site of a Buddhist monastery; by others they are considered to have been quarries. At Undavalle to the south are some noted cave-shrines.

BHAGALPUR, a city of British India, in the Behar province of Bengal, which gives its name to a district and to a division; situated on the right bank of the Ganges, 265 m. from Calcutta. It is a station on the East Indian railway. Pop. (1901) 75,760, showing an increase of 9% in the decade. The chief educational institution is the Tejnarayan Jubilee college (1887), supported almost entirely by fees. Adjacent to the town are the two Augustus Cleveland monuments, one erected by government, and the other by the Hindus, to the memory of the civilian, who, as collector of Bhagalpur at the end of the 18th century, “by conciliation, confidence and benevolence, attempted and accomplished the entire subjection of the lawless and savage inhabitants of the Jungleterry of Rajmahal.”

The District of Bhagalpur stretches across both banks of the Ganges. It has an area of 4226 sq. m. In 1901 the population was 2,088,953, showing an increase of 3% in the decade. Bhagalpur is a long and narrow district, divided into two unequal parts by the river Ganges. In the southern portion of the district the scenery in parts of the hill-ranges and the highlands which connect them is very beautiful. The hills are of primary formation, with fine masses of contorted gneiss. The ground is broken up into picturesque gorges and deep ravines, and the whole is covered with fine forest trees and a rich undergrowth. Within this portion also lie the lowlands of Bhagalpur, fertile, well planted, well watered, and highly cultivated. The country north of the Ganges is level, but beautifully diversified with trees and verdure. Three fine rivers flow through the district-the Ganges, Kusi and Ghagri. The Ganges runs a course of 60 m. through Bhagalpur, is navigable all the year round, and has an average width of 3 m. The Kusi rises in the Himalayas and falls into the Ganges near Colgong within Bhagalpur. It is a fine stream, navigable up to the foot of the hills, and receives the Ghagri 8 m. above its debouchure.

In the early days of British administration the hill people, the Nats and Santals, gave much trouble. They were the original inhabitants of the country whom the Aryan conquerors had driven back into the barren hills and unhealthy forests. This they avenged from generation to generation by plundering and ravaging the plains. The efforts to subdue or restrain these marauders proved fruitless, till Augustus Cleveland won them by mild measures, and successfully made over the protection of the