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CANTERBURY

fame of the martyr’s power and the popularity of his worship became established in England. On the rebuilding of the cathedral after the fire of 1174, a magnificent shrine was erected for him in Trinity Chapel, which was built for the purpose, and became thronged for three centuries by pilgrims and worshippers of all classes, from kings and emperors downward. Henceforward the interests of the city became bound up in those of the cathedral, and were shown in the large number of hostels for the accommodation of pilgrims, and of shops containing wares especially suited to their tastes. A pilgrimage to Canterbury became not only a pious exercise, but a favourite summer excursion; and the poet Chaucer, writing in the 14th century, gives an admirable picture of such pilgrimages, with the manners and behaviour of a party of pilgrims, leisurely enjoying the journey and telling stories on the road. The English language even preserved two words originating in these customs—a “canterbury,” or a “canterbury tale,” a phrase used for a fiction, and a “canter,” which is a short form for a “canterbury gallop,” an allusion to the easy pace at which these pilgrimages were performed. The shrine with its vast collected wealth was destroyed, and every reminiscence connected with it as far as possible effaced, by King Henry VIII.’s commissioners in 1538. But some of the beautiful old windows of stained glass, illustrating the miracles wrought in connexion with the saint, are preserved. The north-west transept was the actual scene of Becket’s murder; the spot where he fell is shown on the floor, but this part of the building is of later date than the tragedy.

Close to the site of the shrine is the fine tomb of Edward the Black Prince, with a remarkable portrait effigy, and above it his helmet, shield and other equipment. There is also in this chapel the tomb of King Henry IV. The Corona, at the extreme cast of the church, contains the so-called St Augustine’s chair in which the archbishops are enthroned. It is of marble, but its name is not deserved, as it dates probably from c. 1200. The western part of the crypt, beneath the choir, is the work of Ernulf, and perhaps incorporates some of Lanfranc’s work. The chapel of St John or St Gabriel, beneath Anselm’s tower, is still used for service, in which the French language is used; it was devoted to this purpose in 1561, on behalf of French Protestant refugees, who were also permitted to carry on their trade as weavers in the crypt. The eastern and loftier part of the crypt, with its apsidal termination, is the work of William the Englishman. Here for some time lay the body of Becket, and here the celebrated penance of Henry II. was performed.

The chief entrance to the precincts is through an ornate gateway at the south-west, called Christchurch gateway, and built by Prior Goldstone in 1517. Among the remains of the monastic buildings there may be mentioned the Monastic
buildings.
Norman ruins of the infirmary, the fine two-storeyed treasury and the lavatory tower, Norman in the lower part and Perpendicular in the upper. The cloisters are of various dates, containing a little rich Norman work, but were very largely rebuilt by Prior Chillenden. The upper part of the chapter-house is also his work, but the lower is by Prior de Estria. The library is modern. The site of the New Hall of the monastery is covered by modern buildings of King’s school, but the Norman entry-stair is preserved—a magnificent example of the style, with highly ornate arcading.

The principal dimensions of the cathedral arc: length (outside) 522 ft., nave 178 ft., choir 180 ft. The nave is 71 ft. in breadth and 80 ft. in height.

The archbishop of Canterbury is primate of all England; the ecclesiastical province of Canterbury covers England Province and diocese. and Wales south of Cheshire and Yorkshire; and the diocese covers a great part of Kent with a small part of Sussex. The following is a list of archbishops of Canterbury:—

 1. Augustine, 597 to 605. 49. John Peckham, 1279 to 1292.
 2. Lawrence (Laurentius), 605 to 619. 50. Robert Winchelsea, 1293 to 1313.
 3. Mellitus, 619 to 624. 51. Walter Reynolds, 1313 to 1327.
 4. Justin. 624 to 627. 52. Simon de Meopham, 1328 to 1333.
 5. Honorius, 627 to 653. 53. John Stratford, 1333 to 1348.
 6. Deusdedit (Frithona), 655 to 664. 54. John de Ufford, 1348 to 1349.
 7. Theodore, 668 to 690. 55. Thomas Bradwardin, 1349.
 8. Brethwald (Berhtuald), 693 to 731. 56. Simon Islip, 1349 to 1366.
 9. Taetwine. 731 to 734. 57. Simon Langham, 1366 to 1368.
10. Nothelm, 734 to 740. 58. William Whittlesea, 1368 to 1374.
11. Cuthbert, 740 to 758. 59. Simon Sudbury, 1375 to 1381.
12. Breogwine, 759 to 762. 60. William Courtenay, 1381 to 1396.
13. Jaenberht, 763 to 790. 61. Thomas Arundel, 1396 to 1414.
14. Æthelhard, 790 to 803. 62. Henry Chicheley, 1414 to 1443.
15. Wulfred, 803 to 829. 63. John Stafford, 1443 to 1452.
16. Fleogild, 829 to 830. 64. John Kemp, 1452 to 1454.
17. Ceolnoth, 830 to 870. 65. Thomas Bourchier, 1454 to 1486.
18. Æthelred, 870 to 889. 66. John Morton, 1486 to 1500.
19. Plegemund, 889 to 914. 67. Henry Dean (Dene), 1501 to 1503.
20. Æthelm, 914 to 923. 68. William Warham, 1503 to 1532.
21. Wulfelm, 923 to 942. 69. Thomas Cranmer, 1533 to 1556.
22. Odo, 942 to 959. 70. Reginald Pole, 1556 to 1558.
23. Ælsine, 959. 71. Matthew Parker, 1559 to 1575.
24. Dunstan, 960 to 988. 72. Edmund Grindal, 1575 to 1583.
25. Æthelgar, 988 to 989. 73. John Whitgift, 1583 to 1604.
26. Sigeric, 990 to 994. 74. Richard Bancroft, 1604 to 1610.
27. Ælfric, 995 to 1005. 75. George Abbot, 1610 to 1633.
28. Alphege (Ælfeah), 1005 to 1012. 76. William Laud, 1633 to 1645.
29. Lyfing, 1013 to 1020. 77. William Juxon, 1660 to 1663.
30. Æthelnoth, 1020 to 1038. 78. Gilbert Sheldon, 1663 to 1677.
31. Eadsige, 1038 to 1050. 79. William Sancroft, 1678 to 1691.
32. Robert of Jumièges, 1051 to 1052. 80. John Tillotson, 1691 to 1694.
33. Stigand, 1052 to 1070. 81. Thomas Tenison, 1694 to 1715.
34. Lanfranc, 1070 to 1089. 82. William Wake, 1716 to 1737.
35. Anselm, 1093 to 1109. 83. John Potter, 1737 to 1747.
36. Ralph de Turbine, 1114 to 1122. 84. Thomas Herring, 1747 to 1757.
37. William de Corbeuil (Curbellio), 1123 to 1136. 85. Matthew Hutton, 1757 to 1758.
38. Theobald, 1139 to 1161. 86. Thomas Secker, 1758 to 1768.
39. Thomas Becket, 1162 to 1170. 87. Frederick Cornwallis, 1768 to 1783.
40. Richard, 1174 to 1184. 88. John Moore, 1783 to 1805.
41. Baldwin, 1185 to 1190. 89. Charles Manners-Sutton, 1805 to 1828.
42. Reginald Fitz-Jocelyn, 1191. 90. William Howley, 1828 to 1848.
43. Hubert Walter, 1193 to 1205. 91. John Bird Sumner, 1848 to 1862.
44. Stephen Langton, 1207 to 1228. 92. Charles Thomas Longley, 1862 to 1868.
45. Richard Wethershed, 1229 to 1231. 93. Archibald Campbell Tait, 1868 to 1882.
46. Edmund Rich (de Abbendon) 1234 to 1240. 94. Edward White Benson, 1882 to 1896.
47. Boniface of Savoy, 1241 to 1270. 95. Frederick Temple, 1896 to 1903.
48. Robert Kilwardby, 1273 to 1278. 96. Randall Thomas Davidson.

The archbishop has a seat at Lambeth Palace, London. There are fragments in Palace Street of the old archbishop’s palace which have been incorporated with a modern palace.

Other Ecclesiastical Foundations.—Canterbury naturally abounded in religious foundations. The most important, apart from the cathedral, was the Benedictine abbey of St Augustine. This was erected on a site granted by King Æthelberht outside his capital, in a tract called Longport. Augustine dedicated it to St Peter and St Paul, but Archbishop Dunstan added the sainted name of the founder to the dedication, and in common use it came to exclude those of the apostles. The site is now occupied by St Augustine’s Missionary College, founded in 1844 when the property was acquired by A. J. B. Beresford Hope. Some ancient remnants are preserved, the principal being the entrance gateway (1300), with the cemetery gate, dated a century later, and the guest hall, now the refectory; but the scanty ruins of St Pancras’ chapel are of high interest, and embody Roman material. The chapel is said to have received its dedication from St Augustine on account of the special association of St Pancras with children, and in connexion with the famous story of St Gregory, whose attention was first attracted to Britain