Open main menu
This page has been validated.

the struggle for the exclusion of the Chinese, for the control of hydraulic mining, irrigation, and the advancement by state-aid of the fruit interests; the last three of which have already been referred to above. Labour conditions were peculiar in the decade following 1870. Mining, war times and the building of the Central Pacific had up to then inflated prices and prosperity. Then there came a slump; probably the truth was rather that money was becoming less unnaturally abundant than that there was any over-supply of labour. The turning off of some 15,000 Chinese (principally in 1869–1870) from the Central Pacific lines who flocked to San Francisco, augmented the discontent of incompetents, of disappointed late immigrants, and the reaction from flush times. Labour unions became strong and demonstrative. In 1877–1878 Denis Kearney (1847–1907), an Irish drayman and demagogue of considerable force and daring, headed the discontented. This is called the “sand-lots agitation” from the favourite meeting-place (in San Francisco) of the agitators.

The outcome of these years was the Constitution of 1879, already described, and the exclusion of Chinese by national law. In 1879 California voted against further immigration of Chinese by 154,638 to 883. Congress re-enacted exclusion legislation in 1902. All authorities agree that the Chinese in early years were often abused in the mining country and their rights most unjustly neglected by the law and its officers. Men among the most respected in California (Joaquin Miller, H. H. Bancroft and others) have said most in praise and defence of the Chinaman. From railroad making to cooking he has proved his abilities and trustworthiness. He is found to-day in the mines and fisheries, in various lines of manufacture, in small farming, and in all branches of domestic service. The question of the economic development of the state, and of trade to the Orient, the views of the mercenary labour-contractor and of the philanthropist, the factor of “upper-race” repugnance, the “economic-leech” argument, the “rat-rice-filth-and-opium” argument, have all entered into the problem. Certain it is that though the unprejudiced must admit that exclusion has not been at all an unmixed blessing, yet the consensus of opinion is that a large population, non-citizen and non-assimilable, sending—it is said—most of their earnings to China, living in the main meanly at best, and practically without wives, children or homes, is socially and economically a menace outweighing the undoubted convenience of cheaper (and frequently more trustworthy) menial labour than the other population affords. The exclusion had much to do with making the huge single crop ranches unprofitable and in leading to their replacement by small farms and varied crops. Many of the Chinese now in the state are wealthy. Race feeling against them has become much less marked.

One outcome of early mission history, the “Pious Fund of the Californias,” claimed in 1902 the attention of the Hague Tribunal. (See Arbitration, International, Hague cases section.) In 1906–1907 there was throughout the state a remarkable anti-Japanese agitation, centring in San Francisco (q.v.) and affecting international relations and national politics.

Governors of California (State)[1]
I. Spanish
Gasper de Portolá served  1767–1770
Filipe de Barri served  1771–1774
Felipe de Neve served  1774–1782
Pedro Pages served  1782–1791
Jose Antonio Romeu served  1791–1792
* José Joaquin de Arillaga served  1792–1794
Diego de Borica served  1794–1800
* José Joaquin de Arillaga served  1800–1804
José Joaquin de Arillaga served  1804–1814
* José Diario Arguello served  1814–1815
Pablo Vicente de Sola served  1815–1822
II. Mexican
Pablo Vicente de Sola served  1822
* Luis Antonio Arguello served  1822–1825
José Maria Echeandía served  1825–1831
Manuel Victoria served  1831
José Maria Echeandía[2] served  1831–1832
Pio Pico[3] served  1832
José Figueroa served  1832–1835
* José Castro served  1835–1836
* Nicolas Gutierrez served  1836
Mariano Chico served  1836
Nicolas Gutierrez served  1836
Juan Bautista Alvarado[4]  served  1836–1842
Carlos Antonio Carrillo[5] served  1837–1838
Manuel Micheltorena served  1842–1845
Pio Pico served  1845–1846
III. American
(a) Military
John D. Sloat appointed  1846
Richard F. Stockton appointed  1846–1847
Stephen W. Kearny appointed  1847
R.B. Mason appointed  1847–1849
Bennett Riley appointed  1849
(b) State.
Peter H. Burnett 1849–1851 Democrat
* John H. McDougall 1851–1852   ”
John Bigler 1852–1856   ”
John M. Johnson 1856–1858 Know Nothing
John B. Weller 1858–1860 Lecompton Democrat
Milton S. Latham 1869 (6 days)   ”
* John G. Downey 1860–1862   ”
Leland Stanford 1862–1863 Republican
Frederick F. Low 1863–1867   ”
Henry H. Haight 1867–1871 Democrat
Newton Booth 1871–1875 Republican
* Romualdo Pacheco 1875   ”
William Irwin 1875–1880 Democrat
George G. Perkins 1880–1883 Republican
George C. Stoneman 1883–1887 Democrat
Washington Bartlett 1887   ”
* Robert W. Waterman 1887–1891 Republican
Henry H. Markham 1891–1895   ”
James H. Budd 1895–1899 Democrat
Henry T. Gage 1899–1903 Republican
George C. Pardee 1903–1907   ”
James N. Gillett 1907–1911   ”
Hiram W. Johnson 1911–   ”

The mark * before the name of one of the Spanish governors indicates that he acted only ad interim, and, in the case of governors since 1849, that the officer named was elected as lieutenant-governor and succeeded to the office of governor.

Bibliography.—For list of works on California, see University of California Library Bulletin, No. 9, 1887, “List of Printed Maps of California”; catalogue of state official publications by State Library (Sacramento, 1894). The following may be cited here on different aspects:—

Topography.—J. Muir, Mountains of California (New York, 1894); H. Gannett, “Dictionary of Elevations” (1898), and “River Profiles,” publications of United States Geological Survey; G. W. James, The Wonders of the Colorado Desert (2 vols., Boston, 1906).

Climate, &c.—U.S. Department of Agriculture, California Climate and Crop Service, monthly reports; E. S. Holden, Recorded, Earthquakes in California, Lower California, Oregon, and Washington Territory (California State University, 1887); United States Department Agriculture, Weather Bureau, Bulletins, Alexander G. McAdie, “Climatology of California” (Washington, 1903). There is a great mass of general descriptive literature, especially on Southern California, such as Charles Dudley Warner, Our Italy (New York, 1891); Kate Sanborn, A Truthful Woman in Southern California (New York, 1893); W. Lindley and J. P. Widney, California of the South (New York, 1896); J. W. Hanson, American Italy (Chicago, 1896); T. S. Van Dyke, Southern California (New York, 1886), &c.

Fauna, Flora.—Muir, op. cit.; United States Geological Survey, 19th Annual Report, pt. v., H. Gannett, “Forests of the United States”; idem, 20th Annual Report, pt. v., “United States Forest Reserves”; United States Division of Forestry, Bulletin No. 28, “A Short Account of the Big Trees of California” (1900), No. 38, “The Redwood” (a volume, 1903), also Professional Papers, e.g.' No. 8, J. B. Leiberg, “Forest Conditions in the Northern Sierra

Nevada” (1902); California Board of Forestry, Reports (1885–  );

  1. As months and even years often elapsed between the date when early governors were appointed and the beginning of their actual service, the date of commission is disregarded, and the date of service given. Sometimes this is to be regarded as beginning at Monterey, sometimes elsewhere in California, sometimes at Loreto in Lower California. All the Spanish and Mexican governors were appointed by the national government, except in the case of the semi-revolutionary rulers of 1831-1832 and 1836 (Alvarado), whose title rested on revolution, or on local choice under a national statute regarding gubernatorial vacancies.
  2. Acting political chief, revolutionary title.
  3. Briefly recognized in South.
  4. Revolutionary title, 1836–1838.
  5. Appointed 1837, never recognized in the North.