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looked upon Giosuè Carducci as their bard and champion, fell away from him after this poem written in honour of a queen, and the poet, wounded by the attitude of his party, wrote what he intended to be his defence and his programme for the future in pages that will remain amongst the noblest and most powerful of contemporary literature. From that time Carducci appears in a new form, evolved afterwards in his last Odes, Il Piemonte, Li Bicocca di San Giacomo, the Ode to the daughter of Francesco Crispi on her marriage, and the one to the church where Dante once prayed, Alla Chiesetta dei Polenta, which is like the withdrawing into itself of a warlike soul weary of its battle.

For a few months in 1876 Carducci had a seat in the Italian Chamber. In 1881 he was appointed a member of the higher council of education. In 1890 he was made a senator. And in 1906 he was awarded the Nobel prize for literature. He died at Bologna on the 16th of February 1907. By his marriage in 1859 he had two daughters, who survived him, and one son, who died in infancy.

The same qualities which placed Carducci among the classics of Italy in his earlier days remained consistently with him in later life. His thought flows limpid, serene, sure of itself above an undercurrent of sane and vigorous if pagan philosophy. Patriotism, the grandeur of work, the soul-satisfying power of justice, are the poet’s dominant ideals. For many years the national struggle for liberty had forced the best there was in heart and brain into the atmosphere of political intrigue and from one battlefield to another; Carducci therefore found a poetry emasculated by the deviation into other channels of the intellectual virility of his country. On this mass of patriotic doggerel, of sickly, languishing sentimentality as insincere as it was inane, he grafted a poetry not often tender, but always violently felt and thrown into a mould of majestic form; not always quite expected or appreciated by his contemporaries, but never commonplace in structure; always high in tone and free in spirit. The adaptation of various kinds of Latin metres to the somewhat sinewless language he found at his disposal, whilst it might have been an effort of mere pedantry in another, was a life-giving and strengthening inspiration in his case. Another of his characteristics, which made him peculiarly precious to his countrymen, is the fact that his poems form a kind of lyric record of the Italian struggle for independence. The tumultuous vicissitudes of all other nations, however, and the pageantry of the history of all times, have in turns touched his particular order of imagination. The more important part of his critical work which belongs to this later period consists of his Conversazioni critiche, his Storia filosofica della letteratura Italiana, and a masterly edition of Petrarch. That he should have had the faults of his qualities is not remarkable. Being almost a pioneer in the world of criticism, his essays on the authors of other countries, though appearing in the light of discoveries to his own country, absorbed as it had hitherto been in its own vicissitudes, have little of value to the general student beyond the attraction of robust style. And in his unbounded admiration for the sculptural lines of antique Latin poetry he sometimes relapsed into that fascination by mere sound which is the snare of his language, and against which his own work in its great moments is a reaction.

CARDWELL, EDWARD (1787–1861), English theologian, was born at Blackburn in Lancashire in 1787. He was educated at Brasenose College, Oxford (B.A. 1809; M.A. 1812; B.D. 1819; D.D. 1831), and after being for several years tutor and lecturer, was appointed, in 1814, one of the examiners to the university. In 1825 he was chosen Camden professor of ancient history; and during his five years’ professorship he published an edition of the Ethics of Aristotle, and a course of his lectures on The Coinage of the Greeks and Romans. In 1831 he succeeded Archbishop Whately as principal of St Alban’s Hall. He published in 1837 a student’s edition of the Greek Testament, and an edition of the Greek and Latin texts of the History of the Jewish War, by Josephus, with illustrative notes. But his most important labours were in the field of English church history. He projected an extensive work, which was to embrace the entire synodical history of the church in England, and was to be founded on David Wilkins’s Concilia Magnae Britanniae et Hiberniae. Of this work he executed some portions only. The first published was Documentary Annals of the Reformed Church of England from 1546 to 1716, which appeared in 1839. It was followed by a History of Conferences, &c., connected with the Revision of the Book of Common Prayer (1840). On 1842 appeared Synodalia, a Collection of Articles of Religion, Canons, and Proceedings of Convocation from 1547 to 1717, completing the series for that period. Closely connected with these works is the Reformatio Legum Ecclesiasticarum (1850), which treats of the efforts for reform during the reigns of Henry VIII., Edward VI., and Elizabeth. Cardwell also published in 1854 a new edition of Bishop Gibson’s Synodus Anglicana. He was one of the best men of business in the university, and held various important posts, among which were those of delegate of the press, curator of the university galleries, manager of the Bible department of the press, and private secretary to successive chancellors of the university. He established the Wolvercot paper mill. He died at Oxford on the 23rd of May 1861.

CARDWELL, EDWARD CARDWELL, Viscount (1813–1886), English statesman, was the son of a merchant of Liverpool, where he was born on the 24th of July 1813. After a brilliant career at Oxford, where he gained a double first-class, he entered parliament as member for Clitheroe in 1842, and in 1845 was made secretary to the treasury. He supported Sir Robert Peel’s free-trade policy, and went out of office with him. In 1847 he was elected for Liverpool, but lost his seat in 1852 for having supported the repeal of the navigation laws. He soon found another constituency at Oxford, and upon the formation of Lord Aberdeen’s coalition ministry became president of the Board of Trade, although debarred by the jealousy of his Whig colleagues from a seat in the cabinet. In 1854 he carried, almost without opposition, a most important and complicated act consolidating all existing shipping laws, but in 1855 resigned, with his Peelite colleagues, upon the appointment of Mr Roebuck’s Sevastopol inquiry committee, declining the offer of the chancellorship of the Exchequer pressed upon him by Lord Palmerston. In 1858 he moved the famous resolution condemnatory of Lord Ellenborough’s despatch to Lord Canning on the affairs of Oude, which for a time seemed certain to overthrow the Derby government, but which ultimately dissolved into nothing. He obtained a seat in Lord Palmerston’s cabinet of 1859, and after filling the uncongenial posts of secretary for Ireland and chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster (1861), became secretary for the colonies in 1864. Here he reformed the system of colonial defence, refusing to keep troops in the colonies during time of peace unless their expense was defrayed by the colonists; he also laid the foundation of federation in Canada and, rightly or wrongly, censured Sir George Grey’s conduct in New Zealand. Resigning with his friends in 1866, he again took office in 1868 as secretary for war. In this post he performed the most memorable actions of his life by the abolition of purchase and the institution of the short service system and the reserve in the army, measures which excited more opposition than any of the numerous reforms effected by the Gladstone government of that period, but which were entirely justified by their successful working afterwards. On the resignation of the Gladstone ministry in 1874 he was raised to the peerage as Viscount Cardwell of Ellerbeck, but took no further prominent part in politics. His mental faculties, indeed, were considerably impaired during the last few years of his life, and he died at Torquay on the 15th of February 1886. He was not a showy, hardly even a prominent politician, but effected far more than many more conspicuous men. The great administrator and the bold innovator were united in him in an exceptional degree, and he allowed neither character to preponderate unduly.

CARDWELL, a town of Cardwell county, Queensland, Australia, on Rockingham Bay, about 800 m. direct N.W. by N. of Brisbane. Pop. of town and district (1901) 3435. It has one of the best harbours in the state, easy of access in all weathers, with a depth ranging from 4 to 10 fathoms. Various minerals, including gold and tin, exist in the district; and there are preserve and sauce