an account of the school of mystical theology founded by them, without doubt the chief contribution made by the Carmelites to religion (see Mysticism). Here it must suffice to say that the idea of the reform was to go behind the settlement of 1247 and to restore and emphasize the purely contemplative character of primitive Carmelite life: indeed provision was made for the reproduction, for such as desired it, of the eremitical life led by Berthold and his companions. St Teresa’s additions to the rule of 1247 made the life one of extreme bodily austerity and of prolonged prayer for all, two hours of private prayer daily, in addition to the choral canonical office, being enjoined. From the fact that those of the reform wore sandals in place of shoes and stockings, they have come to be called the Discalced, or bare-footed, Carmelites, also Teresians, in distinction to the Calced or older branch of the order. In 1580 the reformed monasteries were made a separate province under the general of the order, and in 1593 this province was made by papal act an independent order with its own general and government, so that there are now two distinct orders of Carmelites. The Discalced Carmelites spread rapidly all over Catholic Europe, and then to Spanish America and the East, especially India and Persia, in which lands they have carried on to this day extensive missionary undertakings. Both observances suffered severely from the various revolutions, but they both still exist, the Discalced being by far the most numerous and thriving. There are in all some 2000 Carmelite friars, and the nuns are much more numerous. In England and Ireland there are houses, both of men and of women, belonging to each observance.
Authorities.—A full account is given by Helyot, Hist, des ordres religieux (1792), i. cc. 40-52; shorter accounts, continued to the end of the 19th century and giving references to all literature old and new, may be found in Max Heimbucher, Orden u. Kongregationen (1897), ii. §§ 92-96; Wetzer u. Welte, Kirchenlexicon (ed. 2), art. “Carmelitenorden”; Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopädie (ed. 3), art. “Karmeliter.” The story of St Teresa’s reform will be found in lives of St Teresa and in her writings, especially the Foundations. Special reference may be made to the works of Zimmerman, a Carmelite friar, Carmel in England (1899), and Monumenta historica Carmelitana, i. (1905 foll.).
(E. C. B.)
CARMICHAEL, GERSHOM (c. 1672–1729), Scottish philosopher, was born probably in London, the son of a Presbyterian minister who had been banished by the Scottish privy council for his religious opinions. He graduated at Edinburgh University in 1691, and became a regent at St Andrews. In 1694 he was elected a master in the university of Glasgow—an office that was converted into the professorship of moral philosophy in 1727, when the system of masters was abolished at Glasgow. Sir William Hamilton regarded him as “the real founder of the Scottish school of philosophy.” He wrote Bremuscula Introductio ad Logicam, a treatise on logic and the psychology of the intellectual powers; Synopsis Theologiae Naturalis; and an edition of Pufendorf, De Officio Hominis et Civis, with notes and supplements of high value. His son Frederick was the author of Sermons on Several Important Subjects and Sermons on Christian Zeal, both published in 1753.
CARMINE, a pigment of a bright red colour obtained from cochineal (q.v.). It may be prepared by exhausting cochineal with boiling water and then treating the clear solution with alum, cream of tartar, stannous chloride, or acid oxalate of potassium; the colouring and animal matters present in the liquid are thus precipitated. Other methods are in use; sometimes white of egg, fish glue, or gelatine are added before the precipitation. The quality of carmine is affected by the temperature and the degree of illumination during its preparation—sunlight being requisite for the production of a brilliant hue. It differs also according to the amount of alumina present in it. It is sometimes adulterated with cinnabar, starch and other materials; from these the carmine can be separated by dissolving it in ammonia. Good carmine should crumble readily between the fingers when dry. Chemically, carmine is a compound of carminic acid with alumina, lime and some organic acid. Carmine is used in the manufacture of artificial flowers, water-colours, rouge, cosmetics and crimson ink, and in the painting of miniatures. “Carmine lake” is a pigment obtained by adding freshly precipitated alumina to decoction of cochineal.
CARMONA, a town of south-western Spain, in the province of Seville; 27 m. N.E. of Seville by rail. Pop. (1900) 17,215. Carmona is built on a ridge overlooking the central plain of Andalusia, from the Sierra Morena, on the north, to the peak of San Cristobal, on the south. It has a thriving trade in wine, olive oil, grain and cattle; and the annual fair, which is held in April, affords good opportunity of observing the costumes and customs of southern Spain. The citadel of Carmona, now in ruins, was formerly the principal fortress of Peter the Cruel (1350–1369), and contained a spacious palace within its defences. The principal entrance to the town is an old Moorish gateway; and the gate on the road to Cordova is partly of Roman construction. Portions of the ancient college of San Teodomir are of Moorish architecture, and the tower of the church of San Pedro is an imitation of the Giralda at Seville.
In 1881 a large Roman necropolis was discovered close to the town, beside the Seville road. It contains many rock-hewn sepulchral chambers, with niches for the cinerary urns, and occasionally with vestibules containing stone seats (triclinia). In 1881 an amphitheatre, and another group of tombs, all belonging to the first four centuries A.D., were disinterred near the original necropolis, and a small museum, maintained by the Carmona archaeological society, is filled with the mosaics, inscriptions, portrait-heads and other antiquities found here.
Carmona, the Roman Carmo, was the strongest city of Further Spain in the time of Julius Caesar (100–44 B.C.), and its strength was greatly increased by the Moors, who surrounded it with a wall and ornamented it with fountains and palaces. In 1247 Ferdinand III. of Castile took the city, and bestowed on it the motto Sicut Lucifer lucet in Aurora, sic in Wandalia Carmona (“As the Morning-star shines in the Dawn, so shines Carmona in Andalusia”).
For an account of the antiquities of Carmona, see Estudios arqueologicos e historicos, by M. Sales y Ferré (Madrid, 1887).
CARNAC, a village of north-western France, in the department of Morbihan and arrondissement of Lorient, 9 m. S.S.W. of Auray by road. Pop. (1906) 667, Carnac has a handsome church in the Renaissance style of Brittany, but it owes its celebrity to the stone monuments in its vicinity, which are among the most extensive and interesting of their kind (see Stone Monuments). The most remarkable consist of long avenues of menhirs or standing stones; but there is also a profusion of other erections, such as dolmens and barrows, throughout the whole district. About half a mile to the north-west of the village is the Menec system, which consists of eleven lines, numbers 874 menhirs, and extends a distance of 3376 ft. The terminal circle, whose longest diameter is 300 ft., is somewhat difficult to make out, as it is broken by the houses and gardens of a little hamlet. To the east-north-east there is another system at Kermario (Place of the Dead), which consists of 855 stones, many of them of great size—some, for example, 18 ft. in height—arranged in ten lines and extending about 4000 ft. in length. Still further in the same direction is a third system at Kerlescan (Place of Burning), composed of 262 stones, which are distributed into thirteen lines, terminated by an irregular circle, and altogether extend over a distance of 1000 ft. or more. These three systems seem once to have formed a continuous series; the menhirs, many of which have been broken up for road-mending and other purposes, have diminished in number by some thousands in modern times. The alignment of Kermario points to the dolmen of Kercado (Place of St Cado), where there is also a barrow, explored in 1863; and to the south-east of Menec stands the great tumulus of Mont St Michel, which measures 377 ft. in length, and has a height of 65 ft. The tumulus, which is crowned with a chapel, was excavated by René Galles in 1862; and the contents of the sepulchral chamber, which include several jade and fibrolite axes, are preserved in the museum at Vannes. About a mile east of the village is a small piece of moorland called the Bossenno, from the bocenieu or mounds with which it is covered; and here, in 1874, the explorations of