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cylindrical. The foussa is a sandy-coloured animal with an exceedingly long tail (see Foussa).

The more typical members of the group, constituting the subfamily Viverrinae, are characterized by their sharp, curved and largely retractile claws, the presence of five toes to each foot, and of perineal and one pair of anal glands, and a tympanic bone which retains to a great extent the primitive ring-like form, so that the external auditory meatus has scarcely any inferior lip, its orifice being close to the tympanic ring. The first representatives of the subfamily are the civet-cats, or civets (Viverra and Viverricula), and the genets (Genetta), in all of which the dentition is i3/3, c1/1, p4/4, m2/2; total 40. The skull is elongated, with the facial portion small and compressed, and the orbits well-defined but incomplete behind. Vertebrae: C. 7, D. 13, L. 7 (or D. 14, L. 6), S. 3, Ca. 22-30. Body elongated and compressed. Head pointed in front; ears rather small. Extremities short. Feet small and rounded. Toes short, the first on fore and hind feet much shorter than the others. Palms and soles covered with hair, except the pads of the feet and toes, and in some species a narrow central line on the under side of the sole, extending backwards nearly to the heel. Tail moderate or long. The pair of large glands situated on the perineum (in both sexes) secretes an oily substance of a peculiarly penetrating odour. In the true civets, which include the largest members of the group, the teeth are stouter and less compressed than in the other genera; the second upper molar being especially large, and the auditory bulla smaller and more pointed in front; the body is shorter and stouter; the limbs are longer; the tail shorter and tapering. The under side of the tarsus is completely covered with hair, and the claws are longer and less retractile. Fur rather long and loose, and in the middle line of the neck and back especially elongated so as to form a sort of crest or mane. Pupil circular when contracted. Perineal glands greatly developed. These characters apply especially to V. civetta, the African civet, or civet-cat, as it is commonly called, an animal rather larger than a fox, and an inhabitant of intratropical Africa. V. zibetta, the Indian civet, of about equal size, approaches in many respects, especially in the characters of the teeth and feet and absence of the crest of elongated hair on the back, to the next section. It inhabits Bengal, China, the Malay Peninsula and adjoining islands. V. tangalunga is a smaller but nearly allied animal from the same part of the world. From these three species and the next the civet of commerce, once so much admired as a perfume in England, and still largely used in the East, is obtained. The animals are kept in cages, and the odoriferous secretion collected by scraping the interior of the perineal follicles with a spoon or spatula. The single representative of the genus Viverricula resembles in many respects the genets, but agrees with the civets in having the whole of the under side of the tarsus hairy; the alisphenoid canal is generally absent. V. malaccensis, the rasse, inhabiting India, China, Java and Sumatra, is an elegant little animal which affords a favourite perfume to the Javanese. The genets (Genetta) are smaller animals, with more elongated and slender bodies, and shorter limbs than the civets. The skull is elongated and narrow; and the auditory bulla large, elongated and rounded at both ends. The teeth are compressed and sharp-pointed, with a lobe on the inner side of the third, upper premolar not present in the previous genera. Pupil contracting to a linear aperture. Tail long, slender, ringed. Fur short and soft, spotted or cloudy. Under side of the metatarsus with a narrow longitudinal bald streak. Genetta vulgaris, or G. genetta, the common genet, is found in France south of the river Loire, Spain, south-western Asia and North Africa. G. felina, senegalensis, tigrina, victoriae and pardalis are other named species, all African in habitat.

The Malagasy fossane (Fossa daubentoni), which has but little markings on the fur of the adult, differs by the absence of a scent-pouch and the presence of a couple of bare spots on the under surface of the metatarsus. The beautiful linsangs (Linsanga or Prionodon), ranging from the eastern Himalaya to Java and Borneo, are represented by two or three species, easily recognizable by the broad transverse bands of blackish brown and yellow with which the body and tail are marked. They are specially distinguished by having only one pair of upper molars, thereby resembling the cats, with which, in correlation with their arboreal habits, they agree in their highly retractile claws, and the hairy surface of the under side of the metatarsus. About 15 in. is the length of the type species. In West Africa the linsangs are represented by Poiana richardsoni, a small species with a spotted genet-like coat, and also with a narrow naked stripe on the under surface of the metatarsus, as in genets.

Here may be placed the two African spotted palm-civets of the genus Nandinia, namely N. binotata from the west and N. gerrardi from the east forest-region. In common with the true palm-civets, they have a dentition numerically identical with that of Viverra and Genetta, but the cusps of the hinder premolars and molars are much less sharp and pointed. They are peculiar in that the wall of the inner chamber of the auditory bulla never ossifies, while the paroccipital process is not flattened out and spread over the bulla. In this respect they resemble the Miocene European genus Amphictis, as they do in the form of their teeth, so that they may be regarded as nearly related to the ancestral Viverridae, and forming in some degree a connecting link between the present and the next subfamily. Nandinia is also peculiar in possessing a kind of rudimentary marsupial pouch. Apparently Eupleres goudoti, of Madagascar, which has been generally classed in the Herpestinae, is a nearly related animal, characterized by the reduction of its dentition, due to insectivorous habits (fig. 3); the canines being small, the anterior premolars canine-like, and the hinder premolars molariform. It is a uniformly-coloured creature of medium size.

EB1911 Carnivora Fig. 3 - Skull of Eupleres goudoti.jpg

Fig. 3.—Skull of Eupleres goudoti.

The palm-civets, or paradoxures, constituting the Asiatic genus Paradoxurus, have, as already stated, the following dental formula, viz. i3/3, c1/1, p4/4, m2/2, total 40; the cusps of the molars being low and blunted, and these teeth in the upper jaw much broader than in the civets. The head is pointed in front, with small rounded ears; the limbs are of medium length, with the soles of the feet almost completely naked, and fully retractile claws; while the long tail is not prehensile and clothed with hair of moderate length. Spots are the chief type of marking. The vertebrae number C. 7, D. 13, L. 7, S. 3, Ca. 29-36. Numerous relatively large species ranging from India to Borneo, Sumatra and Celebes, with one in Tibet, represent the genus. Nearly allied are Arctogale leucotis, with a wide distribution, and A. trivirgata, of Java, both longitudinally striped species, with small and slightly separated molars, and a prolonged bony palate (see Palm-civet).

The binturong (Arctictis binturong) has typically the same dental formula as the last, but the posterior upper molar and the first lower premolar are often absent. Molars small and rounded, with a distinct interval between every two, but formed generally on the same pattern as Paradoxurus. Vertebrae: C. 7, D. 14, L. 5, S. 3, Ca. 34. Body elongated; head broad behind, with a small pointed face, long and numerous whiskers, and small ears, rounded, but clothed with a pencil of long hairs. Eyes small. Limbs short, with the soles of the feet broad and entirely naked. Tail very long and prehensile. Fur long and harsh. Caecum extremely small. The binturong inhabits southern Asia from Nepal through the Malay Peninsula to the islands of Sumatra and Java. Although structurally agreeing closely with the paradoxures, its tufted ears, long, coarse and dark hair, and prehensile tail give it a very different external appearance. It is slow and cautious in its movements, chiefly if not entirely arboreal, and appears to feed on vegetables as well as animal substances (see Binturong).

Hemigale is another modification of the paradoxure type, represented by H. hardwickei of Borneo, an elegant-looking animal, smaller and more slender than the paradoxures, of light grey colour, with transverse broad dark bands across the back and loins.

Cynogale also contains one Bornean species, C. bennetti, a curious otter-like modification of the viverrine type, having semi-aquatic habits, both swimming in the water and climbing trees, living upon fish, crustaceans, small mammals, birds and fruits. The number and general arrangement of the teeth are as in Paradoxurus, but the premolars are peculiarly elongated, compressed, pointed and recurved, though the molars are tuberculated. The head is elongated, with the muzzle broad and depressed, the whiskers are very long and abundant, and the ears small and rounded. Toes short and slightly webbed at the base. Tail short, cylindrical, covered with short hair. Fur very dense and soft, of a dark-brown colour, mixed with black and grey.

In the mongoose group, or Herpestinae, the tympanic or anterior portion of the auditory bulla is produced into an ossified external auditory meatus of considerable length; while the paroccipital process never projects below the bulla, on the hinder surface of which, in adult animals, it is spread out and completely lost. The toes are straight, with long, unsheathed, non-retractile claws.

In the typical mongooses or ichneumons, Herpestes, the dental formula is i3/3, c1/1, p(4 or 3)/(4 or 3), m2/2; total 40 or 36; the molars having generally strongly-developed, sharply-pointed cusps. The skull is elongated and constricted behind the orbits. The face is short and compressed, with the frontal region broad and arched. Post-orbital processes of frontal and jugal bones well developed, generally meeting so as to complete the circle of the orbit behind. Vertebrae: C. 7, D. 13, L. 7, S. 3, Ca. 21-26. Head pointed in front. Ears short and rounded. Body long and slender. Extremities short. Five toes on each foot, the first, especially that on the hind-foot, very short. Toes free, or but slightly palmated. Soles of fore-feet and terminal portion of those of hind-pair naked; under surface of metatarsus clothed with hair. Tail long or moderate, generally thick at the base, and sometimes covered with more or less elongated hair. The longer hairs covering the body and tail almost always ringed. The genus is common to the warmer parts of