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hills, chiefly of Jurassic limestone, rising up in the midst of the later and softer deposits on the inner border of the sandstone zone. Their relations to the surrounding beds are still obscure. They may be “rootless” masses brought upon the top of the later beds by thrustplanes. They may be the pinched-up summits of sharp anticlinals, which in the process of folding have been forced through the softer rocks which lay upon them. Or, finally, they may have been islands rising above the waters, in which were deposited the later beds which now surround them. The so-called Klippen of the Swiss Alps are now usually supposed to rest upon thrustplanes, but they are not strictly analogous, either in structure or in position, with those of the Carpathians. Of all the peculiar features of the Carpathian chain, perhaps the most remarkable is the fringe of volcanic rocks which lies along its inner margin. The outbursts began in the later part of the Eocene period, and continued into the Pliocene, outlasting the period of folding. They appear to be associated with faulting upon the inner margin of the chain. Trachytes, rhyolites, andesites and basalts occur, and a definite order of succession has been made out in several areas; but this order is not the same throughout the chain.

The Carpathians, like the Alps, form a protective wall to the regions south of them, which enjoy a much milder climate than those situated to the north. The vegetation of these regions is naturally subjected to the different climateric conditions.Climate,
The mountains themselves are mostly covered with forests, and their vegetation presents four zones: that of the beech extends to an altitude of 4000 ft.; that of the Scottish fir to 1000 ft. higher. Above this grows a species of pine, which becomes dwarfed and disappears at an altitude of about 6000 ft., beyond which is a zone of lichen and moss covered or almost bare rock. The highest parts in the High Tatra and in the Transylvanian Mountains have a flora similar to that of the Alps, more specially that of the middle region. Remarkable is the sea-shore flora, which is found in the numerous salt-impregnated lakes, ponds and marshes in Transylvania. As regards the fauna, the Carpathians still contain numerous bears, wolves and lynxes, as well as birds of prey. It presents a characteristic feature in its mollusc fauna, which contains many species not found in the neighbouring regions, and only found in the Alpine region. Cattle and sheep are pastured in great numbers on its slopes.

The Carpathian system is richer in metallic ores than any other mountain system of Europe, and contains large quantities of gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, coal, petroleum, salt, zinc, &c., besides a greatMinerals. variety of useful mineral. A great number of mineral springs and thermal waters are found in the Carpathians, many of which have become frequented watering-places.

The systematic and scientific exploration of the Carpathians dates only from the beginning of the 19th century. The first ascension of the Lomnitzer peak in the High Tatra was made by one David or Johann Fröhlich in 1615. The first History. account of the Tatra Mountains was written by Georg Buchholz, a resident of Kesmark in 1664. The English naturalist, Robert Townson, explored the Tatra in 1793 and 1794, and was the first to make a few reliable measurements. The results of his exploration appeared in his book, Travels in Hungary, published in 1797. But the first real important work was undertaken by the Swedish naturalist, Georg Wablenberg (1780–1851), who in 1813 explored the central Carpathians as a botanist, but afterwards also made topographical and geological studies of the system. The results of all the former explorations were embodied by A. von Sydow in an extensive work published in 1827. During the 19th century the measurements of the various parts of the Carpathians was undertaken by the ordnance survey of the Austrian army, which published their first map of the central Carpathians in 1870. A great stimulus to the study of this mountain system was given by the foundation of the Hungarian Carpathian Society in 1873, and a great deal of information has been added to our knowledge since. In 1880 two new Carpathian societies were formed: a Galician and a Transylvanian.

Authorities.—F. W. Hildebrandt, Karpathenbilder (Glogau, 1863); E. Sagorski and G. Schneider, Flora Carpatorum Centralium (2 vols., Leipzig, 1891); Muriel Dowie, A Girl in the Carpathians (London, 1891); Orohydrographisches Tableau der Karpathen (Vienna, 1886), in six maps of scale 1: 750,000; V. Uhlig, “Bau und Bild der Karpaten,” in Bau und Bild Österreichs (Vienna, 1903).  (O. Br.; P. La.) 

CARPATHUS (Ital. Scarpanto), an island about 30 m. south-west of Rhodes, in that part of the Mediterranean which was called, after it, the Carpathian Sea (Carpathium Mare). It was both in ancient and medieval times closely connected with Rhodes; it was held by noble families under Venetian suzerainty, notably the Cornari from 1306 to 1540, when it finally passed into the possession of the Turks. From its remote position Carpathus has preserved many peculiarities of dress, customs and dialect, the last resembling those of Rhodes and Cyprus.

See L. Ross, Reisen auf den gr. Inseln (Halle, 1840–1845); T. Bent, Journal of Hellenic Studies, vi. (1885), p. 235; R. M. Dawkins, Annual of British School at Athens, ix. and x.

CARPEAUX, JEAN BAPTISTE (1827–1875), French sculptor, was born at Valenciennes, France, on the 11th of May 1827. He was the son of a mason, and passed his early life in extreme poverty. In 1842 he came to Paris, and after working for two years in a drawing-school, was admitted to the École des Beaux-Arts on the 9th of September 1854. The Grand Prix de Rome was awarded to his statue of “Hector bearing in his arms his son Astyanax.” His first work exhibited at the Salon, in 1853, did not show the spirit of an innovator, and was very unlike the work of his master Rude. At Rome he was fascinated by Donatello, and yet more influenced by Michelangelo, to whom he owes his feeling for vehement and passionate action. He sent from Rome a bust, “La Palombella,” 1856; and a “Neapolitan Fisherman,” 1858. This work was again exhibited in the Salon of 1859, and took a second-class medal; but it was not executed in marble till 1863. In his last year in Rome he sent home a dramatic group, “Ugolino and his Sons,” and exhibited at the same time a “Bust of Princess Mathilde.” This gained him a second-class medal and the favour of the Imperial family. In 1864 he executed the “Girl with a Shell,” the companion figure to the young fisherman; and although in 1865 he did not exhibit at the Salon, busts of “Mme. A. E. André,” of “Giraud” the painter, and of “Mlle. Benedetti” showed that he was not idle. He was working at the same time on the decorations of the Pavilion de Flore, of which the pediment alone was seen at the Salon, though the bas-relief below is an even better example of his style. After producing a statue of the prince imperial, Carpeaux was made chevalier of the Legion of Honour in 1866. Two years later he received an important commission to execute one of the four groups for the façade of the new opera house. His group, representing “Dancing,” 1869, was greeted with indignant protests; it is nevertheless a sound work, full of movement, with no fault but that of exceeding the limitations prescribed. In 1869 he exhibited a “Bust of M. Gamier,” and followed this up with two pieces intended for his native city: a statue of Watteau, and a bas-relief, “Valenciennes repelling Invasion.” During the Commune he came to England, and made a “Bust of Gounod” in 1871. His last important work was a fountain, the “Four Quarters of the World,” in which the globe is sustained by four female figures personifying Europe, Asia, Africa and America. This fountain is now in the Avenue de l’Observatoire in Paris. Carpeaux, though exhausted by illness, continued designing indefatigably, till he died at the Château de Bécon, near Courbevoie, on the 12th of October 1875, after being promoted to the higher grade of the Legion of Honour. Many of his best drawings have been presented by Prince Stirbey to the city of Valenciennes.

See Ernest Chesneau, Carpeaux, sa vie et son oeuvre (Paris, 1880); Paul Foucart, Catalogue du Musée Carpeaux, Valenciennes (Paris, 1882); Jules Claretie, J. Carpeaux (1882); François Bournand, J. B. Carpeaux (1893).

CARPENTARIA, GULF OF, an extensive arm of the sea deeply indenting the north coast of Australia, between 10° 40′ and 17° 40′ S., and 135° 30′ and 142° E. Its length is 480 m. and its extreme breadth (E. to W.) 420 m. It is bounded E. by Cape York Peninsula, and W. by the Northern Territory of South Australia. Near its southern extremity is situated a group of islands called Wellesley; and towards the western side are the Sir Edward Pellew Islands, the Groote Eylandt and others. A large number of rivers find their way to the gulf, and some are of considerable size. On the eastern side there is the Mitchell river; at the south-east corner the Gilbert, the Norman, the Flinders, the Leichhardt and the Gregory; and on the west the Roper river. Jan Carstensz, who undertook a voyage of discovery in this part of the globe in 1623, gave the name of Carpentier to a small river near Cape Duyfhen in honour of Pieter Carpentier, at that time governor-general of the Dutch East Indies; and after the second voyage of Abel Tasman in 1644, the gulf, which he had successfully explored, began to appear on the charts under its present designation.

CARPENTER, LANT (1780–1840), English Unitarian minister, was born at Kidderminster on the 2nd of September 1780, the