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of Casaubon is the full biography by Mark Pattison (1875), of which a second and revised edition, by H. Nettleship, was published in 1892; the most recent work on the subject is Isaac Casaubon, sa vie et son temps, by L. J. Nazelle (1897); there is a monograph on the Fontainebleau conference by J. A. Lalot (1889). Casaubon is the subject of one of St Beuve's Causeries, the 30th of July 1860 (a notice of the Oxford edition of the Ephemerides). See also the article in E. Haag's La France Protestante (1882), and J. E. Sandys, Hist. of Class. Schol. vol. ii. (ed. 1908), pp. 204 foll.

CASCADE MOUNTAINS, a continuation northward of the Sierra Nevada, some 500 m. across the states of Oregon and Washington, U.S.A., into British Columbia. In American territory the range lies from 100 to 150 m. from the coast. The Cascades are separated on the S. from the Sierras by deep valleys near Mt. Shasta in California, while on the N., somewhat below the international boundary of 49° N., they approach the northern Rockies, mingling with these in inextricable confusion, although their name is given also to the much-broken, river-dissected, central mountain plateau that crosses British Columbia from S.E. to N.W. Geologically the Sierras and Cascades are very different, though their exact relations are not yet clearly determined; topographically they are also different. The Cascades are in general a comparatively low, broad mass surmounted by a number of imposing peaks in Oregon and Washington. Especially north of the Columbia river, the range widens out into a plateau. There are no notable elevations in British Columbia. Evidences of volcanic activity in comparatively recent geologic time are abundant throughout the length of the range, and all the highest summits are volcanic cones, covered with snow fields and, in a number of instances, with glaciers. The grandest peaks are Shasta (14,380 ft.) at the southern end, and Rainier (or Tacoma, 14,363 ft.) in Washington, two of the most magnificent mountains of America. Other notable summits are Mt. Pitt (9760), Mt. Scott (9122), Diamond Peak (8807), Mt. Thielsen (9250), Mt. Jefferson (10,200) and Mt. Hood (11,225), in Oregon; and Stuart (9470), St Helens (10,000), Baker (10,827) and Adams (12,470), in Washington. The Fraser river in the far north, the Columbia at the middle, and the Klamath in the south cut athwart the range to the Pacific, and many minor streams descend the range to swell their waters, while some drain directly from the flanks of the mountains into Puget Sound and Gray's Harbor. The Columbia has cut almost to the sea-level through the great mountain mass, the Dalles being only about 100 ft. above the sea. It is to the Cascades of the tremendous rapids at this point that the mountains owe their name. The slopes of the Cascades, particularly on the west, which has a very much moister climate than the eastern slope, are clothed with magnificent forests, chiefly of coniferous evergreens: firs, pine, tamarack and cedar. The Douglas fir, the "Oregon pine" of commerce, often attaining a height of 250 ft., is one of the most beautiful trees in the world. There are also a variety of deciduous trees, but in the aggregate they are unimportant. In 1910 the mountain forests were largely included in ten national forest reserves, with a total area of nearly 16,000,000 acres, extending from the northern boundary of Washington to the southern boundary of Oregon. The magnificent forest cloak, splendid peaks, great open mountain plateau pastures, and exquisite lakes embosomed in mountain fastnesses and forest gloom, give variety to the scenery, which is often grand, and throughout the range indescribably beautiful, though perhaps not equal to the Sierra Nevada in splended light and colour. Large game—deer, bears, mountain sheep and goats, wolves and panthers—still abound. Two great railway systems, the Great Northern and the Northern Pacific, cross the Cascades through noteworthy tunnels; that on the former line is 21/2 m. long, that on the latter a little less than 2 m.

See Oregon and Washington; also G. O. Smith and F. C. Calkins, A Geological Reconnaissance across the Cascade Range near the Forty-Ninth Parallel (Washington, D.C., 1904), being U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 253.

CASE, JOHN (d. 1600), English Aristotelian scholar and physician, was born at Woodstock. He was educated at Oxford, and elected to a fellowship at St John's College, which he was obliged to resign in consequence of his Roman Catholic sympathies. He subsequently opened a philosophical school in Oxford, which was largely attended. He enjoyed a great reputation as a logician and dialectician, and was in addition an authority on music and a distinguished physician. He is described as "a man of an innocent, meek, religious and studious life," an agreeable conversationalist, an enthusiastic teacher, and a great favourite with his pupils. Most of his works were commentaries on various treatises of Aristotle (Organon, Ethics, Politics, Oeconomics, Physics) under curious titles; they enjoyed a large circulation during his time, and were frequently reprinted. He was also the author of The Praise of Musicke (1586), dedicated to Sir Walter Raleigh.

CASE. (1) (From Lat. casus, that which falls or happens; cadere, to fall), a word used in various senses traceable to the derivation. In grammar, the "cases" are the various forms in the declension of a noun, adjective or pronoun, the Latin word being a translation of the Greek πτῶσις, falling, applied by Aristotle to the variations from the simple form of the word, whether noun, verb or adjective (of which the adverb would be a πτῶσις. Later grammarians confined the term to nouns, and included the nominative. In law, "case" is the common term for a cause or suit brought before a court of justice. Certain particular legal usages may also be noted. Action on the case means an action for the recovery of damages for an injury to the person or property, where the act done was not immediately injurious (see Contract; Tort). A case stated is a statement of facts drawn up by one court for the opinion of another on a point of law. A special case is a statement of facts agreed to on behalf of two or more litigant parties, and submitted for the opinion of a court of justice as to the law bearing upon the facts so stated. A leading case is a decision which settles some point of importance. In the legal systems of the United Kingdom and of the United States decided cases are considered authoritative for courts of at least equal jurisdiction with those in which the judgments were given, but on the continent of Europe the rule is, following that of the Roman law, that they are instructive but not authoritative.

(2) (O. Fr. casse, mod. châsse, Lat. capsa, from capere, to hold; cf. "cash"), a box, sheath or covering. The term is applied to the natural protective covering of seed-vessels, and of a pupa or chrysalis. It is also used of a box containing instruments, pistols, swords, &c., and sometimes of the contents. In building, a "case" is the facing where the backing may be of inferior material; the framework in which a window or door is hung; or the wall surrounding a stair, "staircase" properly signifying the whole structure of walls and stairs. In bookbinding, a "case" means the boards and back in which the books are bound; and in typography, the tray, divided into partitions, containing the type ready for the compositor's use.

CASEMATE (Ital. casa, a house, and malla, dull or dim), an armoured vault or chamber, or in field fortification, a bombproof shelter; in architecture, a hollow moulding, chiefly employed in cornices.

CASEMENT (from a Lat. form casamentum), in architecture, a frame in wood or metal, which holds the glass of a window, and is hung by hinges either at the top, bottom or sides.

CASERTA, a town and episcopal see of Campania, Italy, the capital of the province of Caserta, situated 21 m. N. by E. of Naples by rail via Accerra, and 23 m. via Aversa. Pop. (1901) town, 19,18O; commune, 33,373. The modern town (229 ft.) was a mere village belonging to the Caetani family of Sermoneta, who were counts of Caserta, until its purchase from them by Charles IV. of Naples, and the erection of the royal palace, begun by Luigi Vanvitelli (van Wittel) in 1752, but not completed until 1774 for Charles's son Ferdinand IV. It forms a rectangle, the south front being 830 ft. long and 134 ft. high, with 37 windows in each storey. The interior is richly decorated with marbles, almost all of which, except the white Carrara marble, are Neapolitan or Sicilian. The staircase, the chapel