assimilation in such directions that allowed him to keep his fellow-countrymen so well informed of what was going on in the outer world. His literary and journalistic labours occupied much of his time, and were his chief means of subsistence. He left unfinished a history of Europe in the 19th century. The most conspicuous of his earlier works were:–A History of Civilization in the First Five Centuries of Christianity, Recollections of Italy, Life of Lord Byron, The History of the Republican Movement in Europe, The Redemption of Slaves, The Religious Revolution, Historical Essays on the Middle Ages, The Eastern Question, Fra Filippo Lippi, History of the Discovery of America, and some historical novels. Castelar died near Murcia on the 25th of May 1899, at the age of 66. His funeral at Madrid was an imposing demonstration of the sympathy and respect of all classes and parties. (A. E. H.)
CASTELFRANCO NELL' EMILIA, a town of Emilia, Italy, in the province of Bologna, 16 m. N.W. by rail from the town of Bologna. Pop. (1901) 3163 (town), 13,484 (commune). The churches contain some pictures by later Bolognese artists. Just outside the town is a massive fort erected by Urban VIII. in 1628, on the frontier of the province of Bologna, now used as a prison. Castelfranco either occupies or lies near the site of the ancient Forum Gallorum, a place on the Via Aemilia between Mutina and Bononia, where in 43 B.C. Octavian and Hirtius defeated Mark Antony.
CASTELFRANCO VENETO, a town and episcopal see of Venetia, Italy, in the province of Treviso, 16 m. W. by rail from the town of Treviso. Pop. (1901) 5220 (town), 12,551 (commune). The older part of the town is square, surrounded by medieval walls and towers constructed by the people of Treviso in 1218 (see Cittadella). It was the birthplace of the painter Giorgio Barbarelli (Il Giorgione, 1477–1512), and the cathedral contains one of his finest works, the Madonna with SS. Francis and Liberalis (1504), in the background of which the towers of the old town may be seen.
CASTELL, EDMUND (1606-1685), English orientalist, was born in 1606 at Tadlow, in Cambridgeshire. At the age of fifteen he entered Emmanuel College, Cambridge, but afterwards changed his residence to St John's, on account of the valuable library there. His great work was the compiling of his Lexicon Heptaglotton Hebraicum, Chaldaicum, Syriacum, Samaritanum, Aethiopicum, Arabicum, et Persicum (1669). Over this book he spent eighteen years, working (if we may accept his own statement) from sixteen to eighteen hours a day; he employed fourteen assistants, and by an expenditure of £12,000 brought himself to poverty, for his lexicon, though full of the most unusual learning, did not find purchasers. He was actually in prison in 1667 because he was unable to discharge his brother's debts, for which he had made himself liable. A volume of poems dedicated to the king brought him preferment. He was made prebendary of Canterbury and professor of Arabic at Cambridge. Before undertaking the Lexicon Heptaglotton, Castell had helped Dr Brian Walton in the preparation of his Polyglott Bible. His MSS. he bequeathed to the university of Cambridge. He died in 1685 at Higham Gobion, Bedfordshire, where he was rector.
The Syriac section of the Lexicon was issued separately at Göttingen in 1788 by J. D. Michaelis, who offers a tribute to Castell's learning and industry. Trier published the Hebrew section in 1790–1792.
CASTELLAMMARE DI STABIA (anc. Stabiae), a seaport and episcopal see of Campania, Italy, in the province of Naples, 17 m. S.E. by rail from the town of Naples. Pop. (1901) town, 26,378; commune, 32,589. It lies in the south-east angle of the Bay of Naples, at the beginning of the peninsula of Sorrento, and owing to the sea and mineral water baths (12 different springs) and its attractive situation, with a splendid view of Vesuvius and fine woods on the hills behind, it is a favourite resort of foreigners in spring and autumn and of Neapolitans in summer. The castle from which it takes its name, on the hill to the south of the town, was built by the emperor Frederick II. There are three large churches of the late 18th century. There are a large royal dockyard and a small-arms factory; there are also iron works, cotton, Hour and macaroni mills. The value of imports (chiefly coal, wheat, scrap-iron and cheese) for 1904 was £1,239,048, and the value of exports (chiefly macaroni and green fruit) £769,100. There is also a sponge trade, but the former coral trade is depressed. The port was cleared by 420 vessels of 477,713 tonnage in 1905. An electric tramway along the coast road to Sorrento was opened in 1905.
CASTELLESI, ADRIANO (c. 1460?–c. 1521?), known also as Corneto from his birthplace, Italian cardinal and writer, was sent by Innocent VIII. to reconcile James III. of Scotland with his subjects. While in England he was appointed (1503), by Henry VII., to the see of Hereford, and in the following year to the more lucrative diocese of Bath and Wells, but he never resided in either. Returning to Rome, he became secretary to Alexander VI. and was made by him cardinal (May 31, 1503). A man of doubtful reputation, Alexander's confidant and favourite, he paid the pope a large sum for his elevation. He bought a vigna in the Borgo near the Vatican, and thereon erected a sumptuous palace after designs by Bramante; and it was here, in the summer of 1503, that he entertained the pope and Cesare Borgia at a banquet that went on till nightfall despite the unhealthy season of the year, when ague in its most malignant form was rife. Of the three, Cardinal Adrian was the first to fall ill, the pope succumbing a week after. The story of the poisoning of the pope is to be relegated to the realm of fiction. Soon after the election of Leo X. the cardinal was implicated in the conspiracy of Cardinal Petrucci against the pope, and confessed his guilt; but, pardon being offered only on condition of the payment of 25,000 ducats, he fled from Rome and was subsequently deposed from the cardinalate. As early as 1504 he had presented his palace (now the Palazzo Giraud-Torlonia) to Henry VII. as a residence for the English ambassador to the Holy See; and on his flight Henry VIII., who had quarrelled with him, gave it to Cardinal Campeggio. Adrian first fied to Venice. Of his subsequent history nothing is known for certain. It is said that he was murdered by a servant when on his way to the conclave that elected Adrian VI. As a writer, he was one of the first to restore the Latin tongue to its pristine purity; and among his works are De Vera Philosophia ex quatuor doctoribus ecclesiae (Bologna, 1507), De Sermone Latino (Basel, 1513), and a poem, De Venatione (Venice, 1534).
See Polydore Vergil, Anglicae historiae, edited by H. Ellis (London, 1844); and A. Aubéry, Histoire générale des cardinaux (Paris, 1642). (E. Tn.)
CASTELLI, IGNAZ FRANZ (1781–1862), Austrian dramatist, was born at Vienna on the 6th of March 1781. He studied law at the university, and then entered the government service. During the Napoleonic invasions his patriotism inspired him to write stirring war songs, one of which, Kriegslied für die österreichische Armee, was printed by order of the archduke Charles and distributed in thousands. For this Castelli was proclaimed by Napoleon in the Moniteur, and had to seek refuge in Hungary. In 1815 he accompanied the allies into France as secretary to Count Cavriani, and, after his return to Vienna, resumed his official post in connexion with the estates of Lower Austria. In 1842 he retired to his property at Lilienfeld, where, surrounded by his notable collections of pictures and other art treasures, he for the rest of his life devoted himself to literature. Castelli's dramatic talent was characteristically Austrian; his plays were well constructed and effective and satirized unsparingly the foibles of the Viennese. But his wit was too local and ephemeral to appeal to any but his own generation, and if he is remembered at all to-day it is by his excellent Gedichte in niederösterreichischer Mundart (1828). He died at Lilienfeld on the 5th of February 1862.
Castelli's Gesammelte Gedichte appeared in 1835 in 6 vols.; a selection of his Werke in 1843 in 15 vols. (2nd ed., 1848), followed by 6 supplementary volumes in 1858. His autobiography, Memoiren meines Lebens, appeared in 1861–1862 in 4 vols.
CASTELLO, BERNARDO (1557–1629), Genoese portrait and historical painter, born at Albaro near Genoa, was the intimate friend of Tasso, and took upon himself the task of designing the figures of the Gerusalemme Liberata, published in 1592;