furnish food for man the most important are rice, maize and millet, coffee, the coco-nut tree, sago-palm, the obi or native potato, the bread-fruit and the tamarind; with lemons, oranges, mangosteens, wild-plums, Spanish pepper, beans, melons and sugar-cane. The shaddock is to be found only in the lower plains. Indigo, cotton and tobacco are grown; the bamboo and the ratan-palm are common in the woods; and among the larger trees are sandal-wood, ebony, sapan and teak. The palm, Arenga saccharifera, furnishes gemuti fibres for ropes; its juice is manufactured into sugar and a beverage called sagueir; and intoxicating drinks are prepared from several other palms.
Products.—As in natural vegetation and fauna, so in cultivated products, Celebes, apart from its peculiarities, presents the transitional link between the Asiatic and the Australian regions of the Malayan province. For example, rice is produced here in smaller quantity and of inferior quality to that in the western part of the archipelago, but superior to that in the eastern section, where sago and sorghum form the staple articles of food. The products of the forests supply about half the total exports. The fisheries include trepang, turtle and pearl oysters. Gold is worked under European direction in the district of Gorontalo, but with only partial success; the search for coal in the southern peninsula has yielded no satisfactory results; tin, iron and copper, found in the eastern peninsula and elsewhere, are utilized only for native industries.
Natives.—The native population of the island is all of Malayan stock. The three most important peoples are the Bugis (q.v.) the Macassars and the Mandars. The medley of other Malayan tribes, of a more or less savage type, living in the island, are known under the collective name of Alfuros (q.v.). The Macassars are well-built and muscular, and have in general a dark-brown complexion, a broad and expressive face, black and sparkling eyes, a high forehead, a flattish nose, a large mouth and long black soft hair. The women are sprightly, clever and amiable. The men are brave and not treacherous, but ambitious, jealous and extremely revengeful. Drunkenness is rare, but they are passionate, and running amuck is frequent among them. In all sorts of bodily exercises, as swinging, wrestling, dancing, riding and hunting, they take great pleasure. Though they call themselves Mahommedans, their religion is largely mingled with pagan superstitions; they worship animals, and a certain divinity called Karaeng Lové, who has power over their fortune and health. Except where Dutch influence has made itself felt, little attention has been paid by the native races to agriculture; and their manufacturing industries are few and limited. The weaving of cotton cloth is principally carried on by women; and the process, at least for the finer description, is tedious in the extreme. The houses are built of wood and bamboo; and as the use of diagonal struts is not practised, the walls soon lean over from the force of the winds. The Macassar language, which belongs to the Malayo-Javanese group, is spoken in many parts of the southern peninsula; but it has a much smaller area than the Buginese, which is the language of Boni. It is deficient in generalizations; thus, for example, it has words for the idea of carrying in the hand, carrying on the head, carrying on the shoulder, and so on, but has no word for carrying simply. It has adopted a certain number of vocables from Sanskrit, Malay, Javanese and Portuguese, but on the whole is remarkably pure, and has undergone comparatively few recent changes. It is written in a peculiar character, which has displaced, and probably been corrupted from, an old form employed as late as the 17th century. Neither bears any trace of derivation from the Sanskrit alphabet. The priests affect the use of the Arabic letters. The literature is poor, and consists largely of romantic stories from the Malay, and religious treatises from the Arabic. Of the few original pieces the most important are the early histories of Goa, Tello and some other states of Celebes, and the Rapang, or collection of the decrees and maxims of the old princes and sages. The more modern productions are letters, laws and poems, many of the last of considerable beauty.
Divisions, Towns, Population.—Celebes is divided by the Dutch, for administrative purposes, into the government of Celebes with dependencies (south-eastern and southern peninsulas and all west coast), and the residency of Menado (north-eastern peninsula and coast of Gulf of Tomini). The eastern peninsula and coast of the Gulf of Tolo belong politically to the residency of Ternate (q.v.). The following table shows approximately the distribution and composition of the population:—
|Government of Celebes and Dependencies||1414||3738||554||54||409,739||415,499|
|Residency of Menado—|
The Government of Celebes and Dependencies is subdivided into the government territory, the vassal states (Boni, q.v., and Ternate), and the federal countries. The density of population for the whole government is estimated as 3.7 or 4 per sq. m., varying from 2.2 in the vassal and federated states to 14.7 to 18.4 for Macassar and the districts directly governed by the Dutch. The density of population in districts outside the influence of European government sinks to 1 and less per sq. m. As in the case of Minahassa, the difference must be explained by physical and moral conditions. Two-thirds of the natives live by agriculture, and one-third by trade, navigation, shipbuilding and other industries. In agreement with these principal occupations, the centres of population are found in southern Celebes, on the coast (not in the interior plains or on the lake, as in Menado). Palos (3000), with good port; Pare-Pare, connected by road with Lake Tempe; and Macassar (17,925), the seat of the governor and the centre of trade for the eastern part of the archipelago. On the south coast must also be named Bonthain (4000); on the east coast, Balong-Nipa; and Buton and Saleyer, seats of administration and ports of call on the island groups of the same names.
The Residency of Menado comprises three districts: Minahassa, the little states along the north coast west of Minahassa, and Gorontalo, including the other states of the northern peninsula lying along the Gulf of Tomini. The density of population being calculated at about 2.7 to 3 per sq. m. for Celebes, is 16.2 for Minahassa, but only 1.5 to 2 for the Residency of Menado. Centres of population in Menado are Amurang (3000), the seat of a Dutch controller, and a calling place for the steamers of the Indian Packet Company; Menado (10,000), the chief town of the residency, the principal station of the Dutch missionaries, with a fair amount of trade, but an unsafe roadstead; Tondano (12,000), near the lake and river of the same name, at an altitude of nearly 2000 ft., and one of the chief centres; Gorontalo, one of the most important towns of Celebes, carrying on direct trade with Singapore and Europe. All the other coast places have some importance as chief villages of the little states and as ports of call for the vessels of the steam packet company, but have only from 500 to 1000 inhabitants.
History.—Celebes was first discovered by the Portuguese in the early part of the 16th century, the exact date assigned by some authorities being 1512. The name is not used by the natives, and is apparently of foreign origin, but has been variously derived, e.g. from the mountain of Klabat or Kalabat, or from Seli Besi, an iron kris carried by the natives, of whom those who were first asked for the name of the island were conceived, according to this theory, to have misunderstood their questioners. At the time of the Portuguese discovery, the Macassars were the most powerful people in the island, having successfully defended themselves against the king of the Moluccas and the sultan of Ternate. In 1609 the British attempted to gain a footing. At what time the Dutch first arrived is not certainly known, but it was probably in the end of the 16th or beginning of the 17th century, since in 1607 they formed a connexion with Macassar. In 1611 the Dutch East Indian Company obtained the monopoly of trade on the island of Buton; and in 1618 an insurrection in Macassar gave them an opportunity of obtaining a definite establishment there. In 1660 the kingdom was subjugated, but in 1666 the war broke out anew. It was brought to an end in the following year, and the treaty of Bonga or Banga was signed, by which the Dutch were recognized as protectors.