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CELTES—CEMENT

CELTES, KONRAD (1459–1508), German humanist and Latin poet, the son of a vintner named Pickel (of which Celtes is the Greek translation), was born at Wipfeld near Schweinfurt. He early ran away from home to avoid being set to his father’s trade, and at Heidelberg was lucky enough to ind a generous patron in Johann von Dalberg and a teacher in Agricola. After the death of the latter (1485) Celtes led the wandering life of a scholar of the Renaissance, visiting most of the countries of the continent, teaching in various universities, and everywhere establishing learned societies on the model of the academy of Pomponius. Laetus at Rome. Among these was the Sodalitas litteraria Rhenaua or Celtica at Mainz (1491). In 1486 he published his first book, Ars versificandi et carmiuum, which created an immense sensation and gained him the honour of being crowned as the first poet laureate of Germany, the ceremony being performed by the emperor Frederick III. at the diet of Nuremberg in 1487. In 1497 he was appointed by the emperor Maximilian I. professor of poetry and rhetoric at Vienna, and in 1502 was made head of the new Collegium Poetarum et Mathematicorum, with the right of conferring the laureateship. He did much to introduce system into the methods of teaching, to purify the Latin of learned intercourse, and to further the study of the classics, especially the Greek. But he was more than a mere classicist of the Renaissance. He was keenly interested in history and topography, especially in that of his native country. It was he who first unearthed (in the convent of St Emmeran at Regensburg) the remarkable Latin poems of the nun Hrosvitha of Gandersheim, of which he published an edition (Nuremberg, 1501), the historical poem Ligurinus sive de rebus gestis Frederici primi imperatoris libri x. (Augsburg, 1507), and the celebrated map of the Roman empire known as the Tabula Peulingeriarm (after Konrad Peutinger, to whom he left it). He projected a great work on Germany; but of this only the Germania geueralis and an historical work in prose, De origiue, situ, moribus et institutes Nurimbergae libellus, saw the light. As a writer of Latin verse Celtes far surpassed any of his predecessors. He composed odes, elegies, epigrams, dramatic pieces and an unfinished epic, the Theodoriceis. His epigrams, edited by Hartfelder, were published at Berlin in 1881. His editions of the classics are now, of course, out of date. He died at Vienna on the 4th of February 1508.

For a full list of Celtes’s works see Engelbert Klüpfel, De vita et scriptis Couradi Celtis (2 vols., Freiburg, 1827); also Johann Aschbach, Die früheren Wanderjahre des Conrad Celtes (Vienna, 1869); Hartmann, Konrad Celtes in Nrirnberg (Nuremberg, 1889).


CELTIBERIA, a term used by Greek and Roman writers to denote, sometimes the whole north-east of Spain, and sometimes the north-east part of the central plateau of the peninsula. The latter was probably the correct use. The Celtiberi, in this narrower sense, were not so much one tribe as a group of cantons—Arevaci, Pelendones, Berones and four or five others. They were the most warlike people in Spain, and for a long time offered a stubborn resistance to the Romans. Originally Carthaginian mercenaries, they were induced to serve the Romans in a similar capacity, and Livy (xxiv. 49) distinctly states that they were the first mercenaries in the Roman army. They did not, however, keep faith, and several campaigns were undertaken against them. In 179 B.C. the whole country was subdued by T. Sempronius Gracchus, who by his generous treatment of the vanquished gained their esteem and affection. In 153 they again revolted, and were not finally overcome until the capture of Numantia (133). The twenty years’ war waged round this city, and its siege and destruction by Scipio the Younger (133 B.C.) form only the most famous episode in the long struggle, which has left its mark in entrenchments near Numantia excavated in 1906–1907 by German archaeologists. After the fall of Numantia, and still more after the death of Sertorius (72 B.C.), the Celtiberians became gradually romanized, and town life grew up among their valleys; Clunia, for instance, became a Roman municipality, and ruins of its walls, gates and theatre testify to its civilization; while Bilbilis (Bambola), another municipality, was the birthplace of the eminently Roman poet Martial. The Celtiberians may have been so called because they were thought to be the descendants of Celtic immigrants from Gaul into Iberia (Spain), or because they were regarded (cf. Lucan iv. 9) as a mixed race of Celts and Spaniards (Iberians); in either case the name represents a geographer’s theory rather than an ascertained fact. That a strong Celtic element existed in Spain is proved both by numerous traditions and by the more trustworthy evidence of place-names. The Celtic place-names of Spain, however, are not confined to Celtiberia or even to the north and east; they occur even in the south and west.

A long description of the manners and customs of the Celtiberi is given by Diodorus Siculus (v. 33, 34). Their country was rough and unfruitful as a whole (barley, however, was cultivated), being chiefly used for the pasture of sheep. Its inhabitants either led a nomadic life or occupied small villages; large towns were few. Their infantry and cavalry were both excellent. In battle, they adopted the wedge-shaped formation of the column. They carried double-edged swords and short daggers for use hand to hand, the steel of which was hardened by being buried underground; their defensive armour was a light Gallic shield or a round wicker buckler, and greaves of felt round their legs. They wore brazen helmets with purple crests, and rough-haired black cloaks, in which they slept on the bare ground. Like the Cantabri, they washed themselves with urine instead of water. They were said to offer sacrifice to a nameless god (Strabo iii. p. 164) at the time of the full moon when all the household danced together before the doors of the houses. Although cruel to their enemies, they were hospitable to strangers. They ate meat of all kinds, and drank a kind of mead. E. Hübner’s article in Pauly-Wissowa’s Realencyclopadie, iii. (1886–1893), collects all the ancient references, which are almost all brief. Strabo’s notice (bk. iii.), based perhaps on Poseidonius, is fullest.  (F. J. H.) 


CEMENT (from Lat. caementum, rough pieces of stone, a shortened form of caedimentum, from caedere, to cut), apparently first used of a mixture of broken stone, tiles, &c., with some binding material, and hence of any material capable of adhering to, and uniting into a coherent mass, fragments of a substance not in itself adhesive. The term is often applied to adhesive mixtures employed to unite objects or parts of objects (see below), but in engineering, when used without qualification, it means Portland cement, its modifications and congeners; these are all hydraulic cements, i.e. when set they resist the action of water, and can, under favourable conditions, be allowed to set under water.

Hydraulic Cements.—It was well known to builders in the earliest historic times that certain limes would, when set, resist the action of water, i.e. were hydraulic; it was also known that this property could be conferred on ordinary lime by admixture of silicious materials such as pozzuolana or tufa. We have here the two classes into which hydraulic cements are divided.

When pure chalk or limestone is “burned,” i.e. heated in a kiln until its carbonic acid has been driven off, it yields pure lime. This slakes violently with water, giving slaked lime, which can be made into a smooth paste with water Pozzuolanic cement.and mixed with sand to form common mortar. The setting of the mortar is due to the drying of the lime (a purely physical phenomenon, no chemical action occurring between the lime and the sand). The function of the sand is simply that of a diluent to prevent undue shrinkage and cracking in drying. Subsequent hardening of the mortar is caused by the gradual absorption of carbonic acid from the air by the lime, a skin of carbonate of lime being formed; but the action is superficial. Mortar made from pure or “fat” lime cannot withstand the action of water, and is only used for work done above water-level. If, however, such “fat” lime is mixed in the presence of water, not with sand but with silica in an active form, i.e. amorphous and (generally) hydrated, or with a silicate containing silica in an active condition, it will unite with the silica and form a silicate of lime capable of resisting the action of water. The mixture of the lime and active silica or silicate is a pozzuolanic cement. The simplest of all pozzuolanic cements would be a mixture of pure lime and hydrated silica, but though the latter is prepared artificially for various purposes, it is too expensive to be used as a cement material. A similar obstacle lies in the way of using a certain native form of active silica, viz. kieselguhr, for it is too valuable as an absorbent of nitroglycerine, for the manufacture of dynamite, to be available for making pozzuolanic cement. There are, however, many silicious