Fam. 2. Sepiolidae. Body short, rounded at the aboral end; fins rounded, inserted in middle of body-length; shell chitinous, small or absent. Sepiola, head united to mantle dorsally, British. Rossia, head not united to mantle, British. Stoloteuthis and Inioteuthis, without shell. Heteroteuthis. Euprymna.
Fam. 3. Idiosepiidae. Body elongated, with rudimentary terminal fins; internal shell almost lost. Idiosepius, 1.5 cm. long, Indian Ocean.
Fam. 4. Sepiadariidae. Body short; mantle united to head dorsally; no shell. Sepiadarium, Pacific Ocean. Sepioloidea, Australian.
Fam. 5. Loliginidae. Body elongated and conical; fins extending forward beyond the middle of body-length; shell chitinous, well developed. Loligo, fins triangular, aboral, British. Sepioteuthis, fins rounded, extending along whole of body-length. Loliolus. Loliguncula. The following fossil genera, known only by their gladius and ink-sac, have been placed near Loligo:—Teuthopsis, Beloteuthis and Geoteuthis, Lias; Phylloteuthis, Cretaceous; Plesioteuthis, Jurassic and Cretaceous.
Suborder 2. Octopoda.—Only four pairs of arms, all similar and longer than the body. Body short and rounded aborally. Suckers sessile. Heart not contained in coelom. No nidamentary glands.
|Fig. 39.—Palaeoctopus Newboldi, the oldest Octopod known.|
From the Cretaceous rocks of Lebanon. (After H. Woodward.)
Tribe I. Leioglossa.—No radula. Arms united by a complete membrane. Fins on sides of body.
Fam. Cirrhoteuthidae. Tentacular filaments on either side of the suckers. Cirrhoteuthis, pallial sac prominent, fins large, pelagic. Opisthoteuthis, body flattened, with small fins, deep-sea. Vampyroteuthis, four fins. Palaeoctopus, fossil, Cretaceous.
Tribe 2. Trachyglossa.—Radula present. No fins.
Fam. 1. Amphitretidae. Arms united by membrane; funnel attached to mantle, dividing the pallial aperture into two. Amphitretus, pelagic.
Fam. 2. Alloposidae. All arms united by membrane; mantle joined to head by dorsal band and two lateral commissures. Alloposus, pelagic.
Fam. 3. Octopodidae. Arms long and equal, without membrane; hectocotylus not autotomous. No cephalic aquiferous pores. Octopus, two rows of suckers on each arm, British. Eledone, single row of suckers on each arm. Scaeurgus. Pinnoctopus. Cistopus. Japetella.
Fam. 4. Philonexidae. Hectocotylus autotomous; arms unequal in size; aquiferous pores on head and funnel. Tremoctopus, two dorsal pairs of arms united by membrane. Ocythoë, without interbrachial membrane.
Fam. 5. Argonautidae. Hectocotylus autotomous; no interbrachial membrane; extremities of dorsal arms in female expanded and secreting a shell; males very small, without shell. Argonauta.
Literature.—Use has been freely made above of the article by E. Ray Lankester, on Mollusca, in the 9th edition of this Encyclopedia. For the chief modern works, see Bashford Dean, “Notes on Living Nautilus,” Amer. Nat. xxxv., 1901; Arthur Willey, “Contribution to the Natural History of the Pearly Nautilus,” A. Willey’s Zoological Results, pt. vi. (1902); Foord, Cat. Fossil Cephalopoda in British Museum; Alpheus Hyatt, “Fossil Cephalopods of the Museum of Comp. Zoology,” Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. (Cambridge, U.S., 1868); Jalta, “I Cefalopodi viventi nel golfo di Napoli,” Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel, xxiii. (1896); Joubin, “Céphalopodes de l’atlantique nord,” “Céph. de la Princesse Alice,” Camp. sci. Albert Ier de Monaco, ix. (1895), xxii. (1900); Paul Pelseneer, “Mollusca,” in the Treatise on Zoology, edited by E. Ray Lankester. (J. T. C.)
CEPHEUS, in Greek mythology, the father of Andromeda (q.v.); in astronomy, a constellation of the northern hemisphere, mentioned by Eudoxus (4th century B.C.) and Aratus (3rd century B.C.). Ptolemy catalogued 13 stars in this constellation, Tycho n, and Hevelius 51. The most interesting star in it is δ Cephei, a remarkable double star, the brighter component of which is a short period variable (5.37 days), with a range in magnitude of 3.7 to 4.9; it is also a spectroscopic binary.
CEPHISODOTUS, the name of the father and of the son of Praxiteles, both sculptors like himself. The former must have flourished about 400 B.C. A noted work of his was Peace bearing the infant Wealth, of which a copy exists at Munich. Peace is a Madonna-like figure of a somewhat conservative type; the child Wealth is less successful. Cephisodotus also made, like his son, a figure of Hermes carrying the child Dionysus, unless indeed ancient critics have made two works of one. He made certain statues for the city of Megalopolis, founded in 370 B.C. Of the work of the younger Cephisodotus, his grandson, we have no remains; he was a prolific sculptor of the latter part of the 4th century B.C., especially noted for portraits, of Menander, of the orator Lycurgus, and others (see J. Overbeck, Antike Schriftquellen, p. 255).
CERAM (Sirang), an island of the Dutch East Indies, in the Molucca group, lying about 3° S., and between 127° 45′ and 151° E. Its length is a little over 200 m., its greatest breadth about 50 m., and its area, including neighbouring islets, 6621 sq. m. It consists of two parts, Great Ceram and Little Ceram or Huvamohel, united by the isthmus of Taruno; and, for administrative purposes, is assigned to the residency of Arnboyna, being divided into Kairatu or West Ceram, Wahai and Amahai, the northern and the southern parts of Middle Ceram, and Waru or Eastern Ceram. No central chain of mountains stretches west and east through the island, but near the north coast hills, rising 2300 to 2600 ft., slope steeply to the shore. Near the south coast, west of the Bay of Elpaputeh, a complex mass of mountains forms, a colossal pyramid, with peaks rising to nearly 5000 ft. The isthmus connecting the two parts of the island is very narrow, and has a height of only 460 to 490 ft. The chief rivers flow north and south into bays, but are navigable only for a few miles during the rainy season. The rainfall is very heavy, amounting to 121 in. (mean annual) on the south coast. On the north coast the bays of Savai and Waru are accessible for small vessels. The geological structure, consisting chiefly of eruptive rocks and crystalline limestone, is similar to that of northern Amboyna. In the eastern section the prevailing rock is crystalline chalk, similar to that of Buru. Several hot springs occur, and earthquakes are not infrequent. About 4000 persons